Assignment On Ageing
Nature has it own rule, the birth of new born marks the beginning for cycle of life. Firstly, they are small and innocent, their body is completely soft and spongy but once they grow up the texture of certain organs completely changes. Skin that was once soft, becomes hard and tough, along with that some new development is seen. Then slowly when they start growing old, skin becomes loosened up and wrinkles are present all over the body along with declining function.
Science students are generally given many topics and subjects that comes under ageing. Assignment on ageing is in fact very common for students in the field of developmental biology. Hence, if you are looking for accurate and well- framed assignments on ageing, this is the right place. Assignmenthelp.net provides you best tutor to work for your assignment on ageing. You can submit your queries and topics to the professionals and get it done before the given deadlines. The years of experience in online tutoring have made this site stand at the top-most position, so get your work done as per your requirements by the experts.
What is ageing?
Ageing is the natural process where the weakening of organs and tissues takes place thus resulting in death.
Biology of ageing
Though ageing is a natural process, but we can notice that some people get old fast and others do not. To find out the cause behind this, it is important to look over some of the reasons that results in ageing. The reasons are well described below:
- When an organism starts growing old, different organs of the body becomes weak and hence they function ineffectively. Likewise, if there is any defect in the repair enzymes of the body, the chances of mutation highly increases which triggers early ageing in human.
- Some researchers have even argued that the by-product of the normal metabolic cycle is also the cause of ageing. In this process, the oxygen atoms that are taken up by mitochondria are reduced to reactive oxygen species, also called ROS. ROS is the combination of many other ions like hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide ion which acts to damage important content of the cell like that of cell membrane, nucleic acid and proteins. Hence, if ROS is made in higher amount, the process of ageing is expected to start soon. Conversely, if ROS is present in comparatively lower amount, or any enzyme that inhibits the production of ROS is used, then the process of ageing declines to some extent.
- Mutation in mitochondria is the other reason of ageing. Since, mitochondria are a power house of the cell, hence when there is mutation in mitochondria; lack of energy supply to the cell occurs. Moreover, the cells get more susceptible to ROS than those of wild type and hence increase the rate of ageing.
- Beside the above process, there are many genes responsible for the process of ageing. Some of them are: mutations in klotho gene in mice, dominant gene that cause Hutchinson- Gilford syndrome.
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One of the well- studied examples of aging can be seen in case of C.elegans. The life stage of C.elegans includes larval stages before becoming an adult. Even in the larval stages there are certain steps that need to be crossed; daurer stage is one of them. At this stage, C.elegans has the chance to decide when they want to enter the adult stage because they can stay in this stage for maximum of 6 months. At this stage no development in the body of C. elegans is seen and protection against ROS is at high level. So, if the genes that are involved in developmental pathway are mutated then, C.elegans can soon enter the adult stage and live longer because at that period of time, the genes for ROS protection are still active. Hence, mutation in some gene can increase the life span of the adult. The other process is the inhibition of genes in the germ line because germ cell decreases the longitivity whereas somatic cell increases the longitivity. Therefore, the alteration in gene can help to reduce C.elegans ageing.
In case of human, there are many more factors that are responsible for fast ageing process. This includes: smoking, drinking, stress, diseases, unhealthy lifestyle, irregular fooding habit etc. So, if all these factors are accounted for than the process of ageing can be slowed down. Image Reference: File Ageing of the human face