Application Of Butler Theory Of Tourism Development Sample Assignment

CRITICALLY EVALUATE AND PRACTICALLY TEST THE APPLICATION OF BUTLER’S THEORY OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT- A CASE STUDY OF CAMBRIDGE

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.0 Introduction

A wider scope of expansion is present in the industry of tourism in terms of hospitality event services and satisfaction of tourists which are provided by the industry. Development of new distillation is eventually marked as a scope of tourism (Bimonte and Punzo, 2016) as indicated by butler's theory of the tourism development strategic management and planning is been presented for developing new destinations for the tourists and its practical implementation requires to be researched for conforming the conceptual framework that are included in the study.

1.1 Background of study

In the aspect of increasing contribution of the tourism industry as well as current diversification related to the purposes of the tourism it has substantially become an important part to the father development of several streams included in the tourism sector. As indicated by Stylidis et al. (2014), understanding the choices preferences needs requirements and demands of the customers’ tourism services are catered. It has the phone become an important move to improve the tourist destinations in accordance with the expectations as well as needs of several customers. Growth of the tourism industry is compatible to popularity of the destinations that shall be dependent upon satisfaction of customers all across the world. The researcher has found it highly interesting about exploring the development of tourism and undertaking sustainable changes in the tourism sector of Cambridge in spite of getting ample number of issues and challenges in tourism.

1.2 Aim and objective

The key aim of the research lies in “To critically evaluate and practically test the application of butler's theory of Tourism Development”. The study shall be based upon the case study of Cambridge area where Tourism Development is quite necessary.

Objectives of the research could be depicted as:

  • To evaluate butler's theory of the tourism development
  • To relate the butler theory in the context of tourism at the Cambridge
  • To identify issues of the tourism development at Cambridge
  • To provide or suggest fruitful recommendations regarding the up-gradation of Cambridge for a well-known tourist destination

Research questions

Research questions have the researcher to reach the research objectives faster and properly accomplish any project or research paper. Therefore, the research questions of the paper depend upon the objectives and set by the researcher and can be stated as follows:

  • How to evaluate butler's theory of Tourism Development?
  • How to relate Butler’s theory of the tourism development in relation with Cambridge?
  • How to identify different issues of Tourism Development at the Cambridge?
  • What are the fruitful recommendations suggested for developing the tourism facilities at Cambridge?

1.3 Significance of the study

The importance of the study lines and examining different prospects of tourism development in the world especially in the underdeveloped and less developed economy is where the regions are not well established to attract tourists and are not suitable for making any tours (Dwyer and Forsyth 2013). The study focuses on evaluating applications of butler's theory in tourism development of different countries all over the world which do not have proper tourist destinations.

1.4 Research rationale

1.4.1 What is the issue?

The research is being carried out in order to improve the conditions of tourism in the area of Cambridge and suggests necessary development of tourist destination for satisfying the tourists. The development of tourism industry in light of several areas and destinations has been an important issue which is needed to be focused on and attract more and more customers and develop the tourism sector as a whole. It has become the issue in order to overcome barriers of the tourism development in the entire world and successful achieve improvement scopes and opportunities.

1.4.2 Why is it the issue?

It is the issue because the whole world on an average note lacks tourism development as many people cannot visit each and every place of the world to explore. People are often observed to love travelling and make tours but it is not always possible because of the areas being less developed or underdeveloped and thereby hindering promotion of tourism. In order to make the tourism sector upgraded and developed several tourist destinations such as the Cambridge must be made attractive to customers.

1.4.3 Why it is an issue now?

It is a major issue now because half of the world has started promoting tourism and people make explorations to various areas and destinations in order to find happiness and relaxation whereas the other half is still underdeveloped for promoting tourism. Therefore, development and improvement of tourism destinations has been a significant issue in the recent period of time. Ample barriers and hindrances come across the path of development in the tourism sector and organisations which needs to be removed or eradicated in order to pursue success in this industry.

1.4.4 What does the research shade light upon?

The growing population in the entire world has set the demand of tourism and travelling industry on a high note. Therefore, each and every destination in the entire world Britain less developed and highly developed economies shall be made attractive and impressive enough to grab the attention of customers who would want to make ample visits. Along with the increase in population the increase of tourist destination is quite probable and therefore the research shades light on improving conditions of Cambridge for being a tourist attraction (Stylidis et al. 2014).

1.5 Structure of the dissertation

Structure of the dissertation outlines various sections where the researcher has accumulated enough evidences to pursue the am as well as objectives of the research. each and every section is together drawn in a compiled figure which represents the dissertation structure.

Application Of Butler Theory Of Tourism Development img1

Figure 1: Dissertation structure

(Source: Learner)

1.6 Conclusion

The introductory chapter of the dissertation reviews about the significance and background of the entire study. Aim and purpose of the research is clearly stated in this chapter and the objectives are even bulleted in order to accomplish the reservation in an efficient way. Some research questions are also imposed based upon the research objectives that have been set by the researcher. The research rationale has been also explained by the researcher in order to understand the entire base of the research which would help the researcher together appropriate information for the next sections.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

The literature review chapter explains various motions and prospects of development in tourism all across the world. Concept of tourism development and factors which affects the development in tourism on determining Sustainable Tourism Development is explained in this section. Butler's theory of the tourism development has been eventually included in the section along with the impacts on the society of developing tourism which is eventually explicated. The researcher has also gained knowledge on the various which come across the path of developing tourism as well as identified the gaps in present and previous literature works on Tourism Development.

2.2 Concept of tourism development

Developing tourism in the context of sustainable development can be evaluated in terms of Sustainable Tourism and the less developed areas of the world. Sustainable tourism takes complete account of the current as well as future economic environmental and social impacts and eventually addresses needs of the visitors, industry environment along with the host communities. As indicated by Buhalis and Fletcher, (2014), guidelines as well as management practices of the development in Sustainable Tourism have been applicable to every form of the tourism within the types of the destinations involving mass tourism as well as various niche segments of tourism. Development of tourism is determined by the aspect which is related to the proper understanding of the needs and satisfaction level of the customer that guides refreshment and freshness. The development of tourism in a Society Guided by aspects that is related nearly to the development of

Principles of sustainability apparently refers to economic environmental as well as social cultural aspects regarding the development of tourism along with a favourable balance that is supposed to be established among three dimensions for guaranteeing the long-term sustainability. As addressed by Bimonte and Punzo, (2016), development of tourism on the tourist destination must make the optimal utilisation of the environmental resources which constitute the prime element within development of tourism and maintenance of them efficient ecological processes along with helping in conservation of natural biodiversity and heritage. As supported by Stylidis et al. (2014), development of tourism events will include respecting social cultural authenticity related to the host communities buy conserving built as well as living socio-cultural heritage along with the traditional values as well as contributing to the intercultural tolerance and understanding.

In case of making sure that there is clear understanding of you be related to the development of tourism it is to be clearly understood that success of tourism is not only based upon the operation of the government but also to the understanding of the people of society. It is essential also to understand that achievement of organisation and successful factors up Tourism are always on the theory of the definition of development of tourism. For the most information related to the tourism development of the sector is inevitable so as to explore much of its potential.

2.3 Factors affecting tourism development

Various factors determine the development of tourism all across the world like the area of Cambridge. The different factors could be evaluated as:

Social factors: among the social factors a favourable climate as well as beautiful sceneries our Prime factors which affect the development of tourism. A favourable climate could be considered as one of the most significant characteristics of the attraction or any specific tourist destination. Warm and pleasant climate with until presence of sunshine may attract the tourists coming from colder and temperate regions. As evident by Buhalis and Fletcher, (2014), again tourists who belong to summer areas naturally migrate towards call regions and seek pleasure of the cold and fresh environment.

Beautiful and attractive sites of different places are the tourism booms which attract the attention of Tourists and invite them to visit their places more than once. Therefore it becomes quite essential to make any particular tourist spot beautiful as well as impressive in order to grab the attention of different tourists who expect to visit worthy places for relaxation (Sánchez-Rivero and Cárdenas-García, 2014).

Socio-economic factors: Distinct social economic factors eventual influence development of the tourism in the places which are backdated for promoting tourism and lack attention from different tourists. The social economic factors include accessibility, accommodation, ancillary services and amenities. Accessibility refers to easy access for the tourists to travel through distinct transportation modes such as the railways, water, air and roads. In the viewpoint of Wang and Ap, (2013), each and every tourist destination must have these accessibilities for better convenience of the tourists and ignore being a remote the destination which shall not be a good idea for attracting the tourist. As contradicted by Prideaux, (2015), tourist destinations which are the interest of tourists are required to be capable sufficiently for providing better accommodation as well as catering facilities. Accommodation types as per the tourist preferences and choices are based on standard of their living and their lifestyles, affordability as well as expected nature of services. Brida and Zapata, (2014) stated that classification of the accommodation centres based upon the ratings such as 5 stars and 7 stars are quite essential for the tourists to make their choices as well as plan trips accordingly. Tourism prospers mostly in the areas where there is good lodging as well as food facilities at reasonable costs. As inferred by Getz, (2013), growth and development of the tourism at any specific place is eventually influenced by the crucial factors such as the maintenance of tourism activities in the sites such as skiing paragliding roping fishing shopping rowing and suffering adventures. Even availability of the emergency facilities depicts or influences the development of tourism. Again as supported by Hiemstra and Wong, (2013), if the tourist destinations are equipped by the ancillary services such as finance and banking, Internet as well as Telecom connectivity, insurance and hospitals then such places succeed in holding more tourists for longer time and eventually helps in boosting local economy to some extent.

Cultural factors: Historical as well as cultural factors such as the historical significance and places having Legacy of the rich and species cultural heritage attract most number of tourists. As observed by Beerl and Martin (2014), people usually enjoy as well as love exploring the destinations which have popular ancient monuments, castles, palaces of the earlier Queens and Kings as well as well as marvellous forts. Religious factors even effect or influence the development of tourism in many tourist places which are pilgrimage sites as people often seek inner peace and make pilgrims.

2.4 Theory of tourism development

As per the Cohen's theory of tourism in 1984 presented for identifying and understanding behaviour of tourists developing tourist destinations become easier once the preferences as well as sources of the tourist are easily recognised. Bimonte and Punzo, (2016) discussed that according to this theory basically four categories of the tourists are supposed to be explicitly identified unless the preferences for the activities as well as destinations of tours are being concerned. This theory also states that firstly, few groups of travellers and tourists specifically avail services of travel agents and are not observed to make any particular requests which leads to conclusion that the tourism development eventually depends upon the services provided by tourism agencies and their preferences. Second tourist groups which two process control over the decisions and make their own choices (Agarwal, 2016). Thirds groups of the tourists wish to visit new locations and explode them as well as plan their respective tour packages contributing to development of new destinations which are quite rare. Fourth category of the tourists is specifically known as drifters who seem to portray traits of wonders and spend longer time at a specific destination before travelling to another (Yoon et al. 2013).

Again Doxey’s theory of the tourism development as developed in 1975 has introduced an innovative concept popularly known as the equation index which basically presence the overview of ways by which tourist destinations are required to be developed as well as there exists subsequent reactions contributes to declination of tourist destinations. As described by Getz, (2013), the very first stage of the theory is popularly known as Euphoria stage where tourists are provided with a warm welcome and destinations present a hint of excitement in developing the tourism. Brida and Zapata, (2014) explained that the next stage comes apathy where tourist destinations have nothing to offer and therefore remains indifferent which is followed by the theory of annoyance where the tourists seem to disturb local balance as well as annoy local or native people. Antagonism therefore represents the last stage where the native people change in define the tourism as well as limiting inflow of the tourists by the help of public expression (Getz, 2013). Practical Applications of Doxey’s theory of Tourism Development has certainly help in recognising stages of the destinations and develops the tourist destination as per the behaviour of tourist.

As argued by Agarwal, (2016), carrying value addition to both theories that have been presented butler's work has primarily revolved all around development of the tourist destinations owing towards having a belief as well as an underlying assumption to carry in the capacity as well as sustainability of the tourism. According to Agarwal, (2016), Butler's identification regarding the fact of tourist destinations has contains an amount of fragility that led to development of this specific theory that is considered to be the benchmark in the monitoring as well as improvement of quality in the recent industry of tourism. As defined by the butler the tourist destination seems to contain within them and factors may amounts to destruction which would manage tourist destinations. Therefore the element of the self destruction requires for being controlled.

As explained by Brida and Zapata, (2014), the main purpose of the butler's model lies in recognising the various ways in which the tourist Resorts develop and grow. Six stages of butler's theory of the tourism development include exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and decline or the rejuvenation. Exploration and the involvement stage includes the discovery stage where the tourist destinations and to their services are identified by the experience is guided by few number of tourists who have visited certain places. In words of Agarwal, (2016), growth as well as the development stage recognises the success of tourist spots through the means of publicity as well as the willingness of people for visiting the same place more than once. Stagnation stage identify the issues are the problems that are faced by people or when the resort apparently goes out of friends and fashion that leads to the economic decline as well as under utilisation of the tourist infrastructure. Rejuvenation stage helps in developing more of the sustainable strategies depending upon a lower count of the visitors.

2.5 Impacts of developing tourism on society

Several impacts can be addressed in the context of developing tourism over society and environment near by the tourist destinations. The impacts can be measured in terms of increase in income of the residents living in tourist destinations, greater opportunities of shopping and jobs, high demand for the female labour due to developing the construction works and increased expenditure of the housing and land. Vellas, (2011) addressed that the standard of living generally increases due to development in the tourism sectors as there is an increase in the general price of services and goods along with rental houses being the income source.

However, as argued by (Sánchez-Rivero and Cárdenas-García, 2014), scarcity of the essential goods at seasonal time periods is one of the major impacts of developing tourism including degradation of the commercial and cultural goods, increasing count of the resorts and hotels and change in commercial point of view of the local or native people (Vellas, 2011). Environmental impacts include social cost that is supposed to be paid by the uses of the environmental resources and therefore Sustainable Tourism must be planned in each and every tourist spots. Reduction in the immigrant population especially the higher qualified people as well as existence of the lower unemployment rates have observed to contribute to transformation of the tourism growth towards and economic development of the entire world (Van der Borg and Russo, 2015).

2.6 Issues regarding Tourism development at Cambridge

Cambridge can be observed as heading towards being a tourist disaster. If any proper measure is not properly placed for managing the increased visitor numbers then it could have been quite a problem for the language in order to develop tourism. It has become a fear that more than almost 140000 people flocked to city centre of Cambridge in a random morning which was uncontrollable and many researchers have mark disease as very disagreeable experience. As discussed by Brida and Zapata (2014), Chinese have decided that Cambridge would be one of the essential parts of Europe and a journey is one of the must-haves and Cambridge is heading towards the tourist disaster. Cambridge therefore needs to follow lead of the overrun destination such as Barcelona and then as well as implement the control over numbers of visitors. However, as argued by Beerl and Martin (2014), Butler’s theory could be effective and bring productivity in managing Cambridge tourism development. The Universal city has been adored by many international tourists along with day strippers for the charm and sites. As evident by Vellas (2011), frustrated residents have even complained about overcrowded pavement and traffic problems after almost 140000 hours visit the city centre of Cambridge. Locals has given complaints about the traffic congestion which is caused by the tourist coaches and holidaymakers who had gradually paid greater attention to mobile phones and cameras than the surroundings. Again, as contradicted by Brida and Zapata, (2014), Cambridge is promoting many areas in order to attract tourists from all across the world in order to bring sustainable tourism facility in Cambridge. As supported by Getz (2013), due to this problem of over-headed tourists in the destination, they were literally banned in Thailand due to the protection of coral reefs and even the Balearic Islands of Spain. Many researchers have been under covered focusing over bringing the external and internal balance in the city along with implementations of many development policies. As supported by Yoon et al. (2013), another important issue in tourism of Cambridge had been the fact that it is exposed to several indirect and direct impacts from the climatic change. Contribution of the tourism to the emissions of Greenhouse gas (GHG) is increasing. In the viewpoint of Brida and Zapata (2014), complete uncertainty is developed about the reaction of tourists to effects of the climate. Huge number of visitors come to Cambridge in order to make sight scenes and gather experiences through the tourism. This has already resulted in expedition of the natural resources and it has been quite difficult to preserve the natural resources in most of the areas of Cambridge as people often think about deploying the use of natural resources buy their regular or general activities. Due to these persisting issues, Cambridge has been encountering largest tourism development problems all across the world and it is therefore required to manage the governance of tourism sector.

2.7 Gaps in literature

As mentioned by Van der Borg and Russo, (2015). Earlier literary works have hardly focused on butler's theory of Tourism Development, but this research paper focuses on the practical applications of butler's theory in developing tourism as well as identifies ample factors of the drivers of developing tourism. The Research paper eventually explains impacts of the tourism development of society and environment. The concerned research paper is much advanced than the previous literature works because the previous papers have particularly focused on sustainable development of tourism and its importance. However, this paper critically examines the importance of butler’s theory as well as identifies different factors determining the tourism development. Earlier researchers have carried out research both accumulating primary as well as secondary data but in this research the researcher has chosen only primary data to be collected for both quantitative as well as qualitative analysis. A survey session is carried out for collecting the primary data but no inferential statistics along with descriptive statistics have been computed over the accumulated data.

2.8 Conceptual framework

Application Of Butler Theory Of Tourism Development img2

Figure 2: Conceptual framework

(Source: Learner)

2.9 Conclusion

The literature review part clarifies different movements and prospects of advancement in tourism the whole way across the world. Idea of the tourism advancement and elements which influences the improvement in tourism on deciding Sustainable Tourism Development is being clarified in this segment. Butler’s hypothesis of the tourism improvement has been in the long run incorporated into the area alongside the effects on the general public of creating tourism which is inevitably explained. The exploration has likewise picked up information on the different which gone over the way of creating tourism and also distinguished the crevices in present and past writing deals with Tourism Development. This section has successfully helped the researcher to gain appropriate knowledge on the next sections.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.0 Introduction

The methodological section of the dissertation has properly demonstrated the courses in which the examination has been conveyed upon by the specialist. It incorporates the clarification and supports of research reasoning, Research Design examine approach, Data Collection strategies and additionally the exploration methodology. Information Collection instruments and in addition the testing strategy utilized as a part of the examination has in the end been elucidated by the scientist. Toward the end test estimate and additionally populace tally alongside the examination restrictions have likewise been specified in this methodological segment of the paper.

3.1 Research onion

The research onion has been produced by Saunders et al. (2007) for portraying different stages by which a scientist should pass while detailing as well as profitable and in addition, successful strategy of the specific research paper. This in the end makes the starting point for a fitting exploration system. Under the main layer of the exploration onion, investigate logic might be clarified with appropriate defense by the analyst and the explanation for picking that specific theory for the paper.

Application Of Butler Theory Of Tourism Development img3

Figure 3: Research Onion

(Source: Saunders et al. 2007)

In the second step of the exploration system, investigate approach is being defended and clarified taken after by the third step where inquire about technique is being received and forward layer of the examination onions discloses to distinguish time Horizon. Research onion evidently portrays the layers and ventures for continuing the exploration creating distinctive research strategies or the systems to gather information and additionally select inspecting size and populace.

3.2 Research philosophy

Research reasoning is by all accounts a standout amongst the most essential segments of any exploration procedure incorporated into an exposition and the scientist entirely tails it keeping in mind the end goal to direct a suitable and compelling examination. Research reasoning fundamentally manages nature, advancement and additionally wellspring of the learning from which the scientist picks up productivity of the examination. Detailing of supposition and also convictions are anticipated from planning the examination rationality which is for the most part of four primary classifications practicality, positivism, authenticity and interpretivism. Choosing a particular research theory for this specific research is generally affects it through the useful ramifications (Chinn and Rinehart, 2016).

A research discovery is by and largely quantifiable and believes in the positivism philosophy. Interpretivism theory is essentially connected with a philosophical pride of the vision and can be utilised for gathering together the different approaches including phenomenology, hermeneutics and social constructivism. Authenticity of the theory in the exploration depends over the thought of the Independence of the truth from the human personality. This specific logic seems to be endless supply of the logical approach towards advancement of the information (Sytsma and Buckwalter, 2016).

Logic rationality is utilized to perceive a few approaches to decipher world and in addition undertaking the examination and it likewise concentrates on the way that no specific view can give whole picture and in the long run contains different substances. Research questions turn out to be most huge determinant of logic investigate logic. Then again positivism alongside the interpretivism is two of the extraordinary Paradigms which are totally unrelated by nature on the premise of different wellsprings of the learning. Positivism theory underscores on increasing verifiable information through the perception including unmistakable estimation however it is restricted to the translation and information gathering through a goal approach (Turner et al. 2016).

3.2.1 Justification of interpretivism philosophy

For this specific research, the specialist had Undertaken interpretivism philosophy as it would certainly allow the researcher to conduct an in-depth analysis even if small data samples are being used. In addition to this in case of the interpretation philosophy research Method can be either of the two quantity of qualitative in nature and thereby would increase accuracy of research that is needed to be held. Therefore in comparison with the pragmatism philosophy that deals with extremely large samples as well as is highly structured in nature researcher has chosen of interpretivism philosophy which is eventually justified.

3.3 Research design

Research Design fundamentally alludes to a general technique which is picked by the analyst for incorporating distinctive parts incorporated into the examination in a sensible and additionally covalent way which guarantees to viably address the particular research issue. Research Design in the long run constitutes outline for estimation gathering and investigation of the information. It likewise guarantee that confirmation which is empowered for tending to the specific research issue which is distinguishing the culturally diverse change in India through the improvement of multinational enterprises in a sensible and unambiguous way (Roche and Shogenji, 2014).

The motivation behind the Research Design has been essentially to provide the arrangement of the investigation which allows a precise appraisal for the impact and cause connections among the free and in addition subordinate factors. Essentially three unique sorts of research outlines are utilized as a part of an examination paper which are: engaging Research Design Descriptive and illustrative Research Design. Graphic research characterizes the investigation which is intended for portraying members in a correct way (Algozzine and Hancock, 2016).

Three prime routes for gathering data to be utilized as a part of an unmistakable report incorporates perceptions, Case thinks about and from overview examination (Smith, 2015). The Descriptive Research Design is commonly directed with respect to an examination issue where there are no or couple of most punctual investigations which can be alluded to for additionally inquire about. Center of the Descriptive research configuration lies on picking up recognition and bits of knowledge for the letter examination or is attempted when the issues are in preparatory phases of the examination. Descriptive Research Design essentially has confidence in clarifying the issues with or with no sort of proper rationale (McCune, 2016).

3.3.1 Justification of descriptive design

For this specific research, the scientist has picked descriptive Research Design that would be precisely suitable. Descriptive research outlines incorporate proper perception and inspecting of the investigation to be directed through reviews and center gatherings. It is fitting as members can participate in the exploration specifically and also through circuitous ways. Descriptive outline in the end has faith in depicting the whole research in light of appropriate rationale and translation.

3.4 Research approach

Research approach which is utilized for leading an exploration fundamentally indicates importance of the speculation to be utilized as a part of the investigation. Two prime research methodologies can be made sense of while directing exploration which are-deductive research approach and inductive research approach. Deductive research approach for the most part works from a broader segment towards a more particular one. Another exploration approach not for the most part used in assets is the kidnapping research approach. In a deductive research approach the data is investigated from a General shape to a particular frame and the gathering of information is utilized for assessing the recommendation for the speculation identifying with a steady hypothesis (Roche and Shogenji, 2014).

In the inductive research surmising guarantees are generally referred to and in addition are utilized for producing the untested conclusions. It can be embraced from particular frame to a general shape. Information gathering in this exploration approach is fundamentally utilized for investigating the marvel, recognizing subjects and additionally designs alongside formation of the applied system. Inductive research approach incorporates utilization of the known guarantees for creating that is steady conclusions and connections among particular and general shape is watched. Accumulation of information is for the most part accomplished for investigating wonder distinguishing examples and topics and finding all these inside a theoretical system. Testing of the information which is amassed through an ensuring information gathering strategy is likewise included under the target look into approach (Gentles et al. 2014).

3.4.1 Justification of deductive approach

Deductive Research Design is fitting for the concerned research since premises are normally valid in a deductive plan and he in this way demonstrating the honesty of the conclusion. The speculations incorporated into the exploration include confirmation and adulteration. Under deductive Research Design the examination will occur by understanding the hypothesis and creating theory took after by directing a perception of test and affirmation or dismissal after the tests. Keeping in mind the end goal to recognize the social contrasts that have emerged in Indian economy for developing remote direct venture for the most part in the form business deductive Research Design had been productive for reaching a successful inference.

3.5 Research strategy

Two fundamental research systems are in this way directing a sound research. In view of the subject, the examination procedures are picked and by and large both the systems can be valuable for leading and advanced research. The different strategies and methods of research could be compiled as two - quantitative research methodology and Qualitative research procedure. Qualitative research is normally utilized for revealing the patterns in assessments and musings and additionally in plunging further into the issue (Liamputtong, 2013). Qualitative strategies to gather information shift utilizing the unstructured or the semi organized procedures.

It is fundamentally the technique for inquisitive the utilized in adequate particular scholastic controls including in normal and in addition Social Sciences and even in the non-scholarly settings, for example, statistical surveying administration exhibition through not-for-profits and organizations. Qualitative information gathering strategy is a scope of the strategies and procedures that moves from gathering information towards some type of the clarification elucidation or comprehension of circumstances and individuals while researching them (Sekaran, and Bougie, 2016). Qualitative research clearly originates from the interpretivist viewpoint and in this manner is substantially more worried about the elucidation and understanding marvels over the implications connected by the general population to them.

Research which is conducted can be either quantitative or qualitative by nature. the distinction between quantitative research method and qualitative research method depends upon the data nature type as well as analytical methods that are used for conducting research Definite elements of the data might be pertaining to various numeric figures and facts. This type of data can be conveniently measured and quantified and therefore the research is generated as quantitative by nature. Therefore research is suitable enough for entering the data which is imperative and relevant to itself but eventually contains abstract notions which is not around measurable however can be measured by intensity. This kind of research becomes qualitative and facets as in opinions the satisfaction and happiness as well as customer satisfaction significant but cannot be measured numerically. In contradiction to this mixed method is also used where both qualitative and quantitative data are combined for conducting research. The researcher has therefore selected both qualitative and quantitative methods of analysing data collected over the topic.

Under quantitative research technique, the gathered information is fundamentally accumulated using the organized instruments of research and results are normally in light of expansive example sizes which a delegate of populace. Quantitative research study may for the most part be rehashed reproduced given its dependability to be higher. Qualitative research information are for the most part in type of the numbers and in addition measurements which are masterminded in diagrams, figures tables and other non printed shapes (Ragin, 2014). Rather than Qualitative research, quantitative research is fundamentally connected with the positive approach.

3.5.1 Justification of mixed strategy

According to the concerned research along with factual figures under last 5 to 10 years which are related to tourism as well as tourist influx is needed for conducting research Along with thoughts and opinions of tourists in the context of Cambridge along with tourist attractions which are offered are eventually needed for concluding research. In this context of proposition to conduct research depending upon mixed nature is thereby justified. The researcher would find it easier for analysing the data that have been used in the research and therefore has selected both qualitative and quantitative strategies of research. In order to identify tourism development and facilities or issues of Sustainable Tourism in Cambridge the researcher has opted for the quantitative analysis where in by collecting both primary and secondary data to conclude the actual analysis. On the other hand the historical reasons and background of Cambridge would only be available by analysing using qualitative research method.

3.7 Data collection methods

Ideally research is supposed to be based upon data as well as findings which are validated and relevant. Data is needed to be incorporated within the research in a way such that the data actually fits the model to be concluded in the research considering both primary and secondary ones. In this context it can be highly noticed that few aspects of including data were generally referred to most latest and recent data forms. This particular data would be both quantitative and qualitative by nature (Teknomo, 2016). Owing to the fact that primary data would come from research which is freshly conducted would generally involve participation of third parties as well as research respondents. Advantage of utilising this kind of data portrays a fact that this type of data is latest and unbiased and therefore lens practical approach towards the research. on the other way there are research papers books and journals which are published over same topic of similar subject before ever this type of research is being proposed (Jones et al. 2016). Such data is only used for conducting research. However, limitation with this kind of data which is being used could be that apart from being old it can also be biased according to the views of researcher. Under the qualitative analysis interview of the managers of the tourist agencies and the hospitality companies within the Cambridge is to be undertaken where 3 to 4 managers shall be included in the interview procedure. a questionnaire of 5 questions is to be set which all open ended unstructured in order to examine the importance of tourism along with the issues encountered by the Cambridge tourism management. A proposition of interview shall be undertaken by the researcher on a particular day where each of the managers would provide their opinions on a face to face notice and one by one.

3.7.1 Justification of primary data

The researcher is inclined in selecting primary data as that is suitable data collection method because primary data which certainly lead to direct method of collecting data. As it would include lesser amount of biases and invalidation that would be present in any kind of secondary data and it would not therefore merely Support the researcher for conducting a healthy and fruitful research. Primary data is much reliable than the secondary wants as the secondary data tools and techniques are not that much reliable and valid as per the opinions and zero points of the researcher. Using primary data would generate effective feedback and outcomes over which the researcher can easily confused the incidences of Sustainable Tourism and Tourism Development in Cambridge using butler's theory of tourism.

3.8 Research Tools and techniques

Several research tools can be used as an cases of the past journals and research that were carried out for assimilating secondary data which seems to be functional being the review of literature whereas for assimilating primary data interactive assimilation of data is supposed to be conducted. Therefore this kind of data assimilation can be only constructed using questionnaires, surveys, group discussions as well as interviews. Considering the selected Research Design surveys and questionnaires shall be best fitted methods of applying primary research.

A particular structured survey in closing almost 12 open and closed ended questions along with three of the questions based upon likert scale has been presented to both men as well as women around and inside Cambridge as well as its neighbouring areas. Respondents have been honestly requested for participating in survey after clarifying the intent of concerned research. only completed and voluntary questionnaires have been deemed fit for the proposed research. a sum total of almost 80 respondents had been requested for participating in completion of the concerned research. Keeping in mind each and every ethics and conduct the researcher has developed the questionnaire and put it forward to the respondents expecting some valid and reliable answers that was certainly help the researcher for concluding the research. Following and maintaining data Protection Act of 1988 the researcher has not at all this closed any of the answers given by respondents on an individual way and put their identity at stake. In order to undertake the interview researcher has prepared a questionnaire of 4 questions each of them is linked to the objective and shall help the researcher to pursue objectives of the entire study and understand butler's tourism model in a better way through the perceptions of the managers.

3.9 Sampling techniques

Generally two types of sampling techniques are utilised by the researcher while conducting any research which may be simple random sampling and cluster sampling. by doing sampling groups of the individuals are created out of a total population are encouraged and motivated for participating in the survey. as per the requirements of the concerned research using a qualifying criteria it could be stated that random sampling technique had been inappropriately used by the researcher. Simple random sampling technique can be stated as a subset of statistical population where in each of the members included within subset possess equivalent probability of getting selected. it is therefore utilised in order to shorten the sample size from larger population as well as use it in the research to make specific generalizations concerning a large group. Each of the members in groups can be defined as mutually exclusive and exhaustive in order of getting equal chance to be selected. The sample for interview is 5 hours on a whole 5 distinctive managers shall be interviewed by the researcher.

3.10 Sample size and population

For representing population in the uniform way sample size is required to be collected in a random manner and must be sufficiently large enough for justifying analysis that is supposed to be conducted by researcher. Considering present research the researcher has opted for choosing 80 respondents for survey session to be carried out in the research. Population is the total respondent that could be surveyed which has amounted to 100. Sample size for conducting interview would be 5.

3.11 Research limitation

Certain research limitations have been encountered by researcher at the time of conducting research by collecting primary data. Researcher has faced sample issues in the context of ethical grounds to accomplish the research and collect the data from the respondents through their answers in the survey questionnaire. Some ethical issues faced by the researcher at the time of giving answers to the questions set on the questionnaires and many respondents have refused of participating in the survey due to the fear of answering such questions. Even if the respondents were convinced for providing answers to the questions then also the validity and reliability of the questions were not sure as per the views of the researcher. Setting up of questions that would not hurt the dignity and self respect of the respondents has been quite difficult for the researcher. Therefore, collecting primary data has been both time consuming and laborious. While conducting interview the researcher has faced similar but a bit different problems and issues as the managers seem to be quite busy in their own schedule and they hardly had the time for providing interview to the researcher. The researcher has to manage the interview sessions critically As it was quite time consuming and laborious. even financial constraints a rose for the researcher while conducting the interview sessions as he had to visit almost regularly to the managers for requesting them for the interview. Also a bias is included as managers main hide significant information about Cambridge tourism and its issues as it would not be good for its reputation.

3.12 Conclusion

From the methodological section therefore it can be concluded that the researcher has opted for both qualitative as well as quantitative research methods using primary data and survey questionnaire as the research tool. Sampling size and technique has been also mentioned by the researcher in the section and therefore it has helped for proceeding towards the next section of analysing the collected data.

Chapter 4: Data Analysis

4.0 Quantitative analysis

  1. What is your age?

Age Group

Respondents

Percentage of Respondents

Total no. of respondents

20-30

10

13

80

30-40

45

55

80

40-50

15

19

80

50 and above

10

13

80

Table 1: Age group

(Source: created by author)

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Figure 3: Age group

(Source: created by author)

Analysis: From the above table it can be analysed that there is Clear maturity among the people in the society regarding their interest in having tourism as their option for refreshment. The people those were undertaken for survey mostly where in the age group of 30 years to 40 which means that they are well settled and in established job that guarantees tourism as a mode of refreshment. It is seen from the above table and figures that age group of 40 to 50 and 50 above have soon 19% and 13% respectively in terms of their age group.

  1. What is your annual income?

Range of income

Respondents

Percentage of Respondents

Total no. of respondents

30000-40000

10

13

80

40000-50000

55

68

80

50000 and above

15

19

80

Table 2: Income range

(Source: created by author)

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Figure 4: Income range

(Source: created by author)

Analysis: Getting tourism as their option for refreshment and luxury demand certain sum of money that can be only gained from fixed amount of services and employment. It is saying that people who income per month. From the above table and figure it is clear that 68% out of the 80 people who are undertaken for the survey have said that they have the above mentioned range of income.

  1. Do you like visiting places?

Options

Respondents

Percentage of Respondents

Total no. of respondents

Yes

55

69

80

No

25

31

80

Table 3: Opinion on visiting place

(Source: created by author)

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Figure 5: Opinion on visiting place

(Source: created by author)

Analysis: From the above table there is a clear view point of common people in the society regarding their thought and opinion on visiting places. It is seen that as for the common human psychology majority of the people out of the survey have selected in terms of giving their opinion on whether they like visiting places or not. From the above table and the figure given it can be seen that 69% of the people have voted yes whereas 31% have voted no.

  1. How often do you make trips and tours?

Options

Respondents

Percentage of Respondents

Total no. of respondents

Very often

10

13

80

Often

35

44

80

Neutral

10

13

80

Less

15

17

80

Negligible times

10

13

80

Table 4: Frequency of making trips

(Source: created by author)

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Figure 6: Frequency of making trips

(Source: created by author)

Analysis: Visiting place for my life has been always a dream and reality for people in the society. It is clear that making tricks with family and colleagues and swing remains to be an important place in the life of every people therefore From the above table and figure it can be seen that 44% of the people in the society agrees that they often plan for trip and outing in terms of vacation and holidays with your family is and colleagues for refreshing their mind. It is clear that why only “often” have been selected out of very often from the survey questionnaire, because money factor plays an important role in the society for gaining such luxurious thoughts of trip and outing. It must be usually noted that people who have voted for less number of times in thoughts of Giving And making trip are larger than the people who very often go for trip and tourism collection. It is so because the income level of the society is something that remains to be uncertain and very few people are certain of their future income being stable. It is seen that 17% of the people have voted for less number of time whereas only 13% have selected “very often option”.

  1. What type of destination do you prefer?

Destinations preferred

Respondents

Percentage of Respondents

Total no. of respondents

Coastal destination

35

44

80

Urban destination

10

13

80

Rural destination

5

6

80

Hilly destination

30

37

80

Table 5: Type of destination preferred

(Source: created by author)

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Figure 7: Type of destination preferred

(Source: created by author)

Analysis: Going for a tour of our vacation is every people dream in society leaving with all their expectations and walk together. It is clear that every opportunity for the people in the society remains to be going for outing of a vacation with your family, classmates colleagues so as to freshen them up from the daily bottom or melancholic stroke of life. From the above table and figure it can be seen that people do love to visit places with something adventurous and new together in the life. It can be seen that 44% of the people out of 80 people who were undertaken for serving have supported that they preferred coastal destination for going out and making them self refreshed. It must not go unnoticed that hilly destination does not go far beyond the views of the people as it is seen that 37% out of 80 have preferred such destination as something new and adventurous for making them refreshed out of the same go strain.

  1. Do you think Cambridge is a good tourist destination?

Thoughts

Respondents

Percentage of Respondents

Total no. of respondents

Strongly Agree

25

31

80

Agree

35

44

80

Neutral

5

6

80

Disagree

10

13

80

Strongly disagree

5

6

80

Table 6: Thoughts regarding Cambridge being a good tourist spot

(Source: created by author)

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Figure 8: Thoughts regarding Cambridge being a good tourist spot

(Source: created by author)

Analysis: Every tourist spot Wings of becoming a good one in the eyes and the views of the twist in the society and in the world. Similar is in the case of Cambridge tourist industry, as defined knowing the customer reviews over making the tourist industry further more attractive. It is most obvious that becoming a tourist spot with the full feeling of everyone satisfaction is a tough one but Cambridge have somehow managed to make sure that they remain so. From the above table and figure it is seen that 44% out of 80 people undertaken for survey agrees in voting the Cambridge tourist industry as a good one. However, simply agreeing over fact that Cambridge is a good one indicates that there are few issues that need to be solved by the organisation so as to make the vote of the common people and the tourist turned on strongly agreeing that the society of Cambridge as a tourist spot. It is alarming to see that 31% of the people have strongly agreed on the fact that Cambridge is a good tourist spot.

  1. Do you agree Cambridge promotes sustainable tourism?

Options

Respondents

Percentage of Respondents

Total no. of respondents

Strongly Agree

35

44

80

Agree

20

25

80

Neutral

5

6

80

Disagree

15

19

80

Strongly Disagree

5

6

80

Table 7: Thoughts on promotion of sustainable tourism

(Source: created by author)

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Figure 9: Thoughts on promotion of sustainable tourism

(Source: created by author)

Analysis: On asking the questions regarding whether the people in the society accept that Cambridge tourism industry support sustainable development there was a huge response of strongly agreed to the fact that there is sustainable development in the society. From the above table It is seen that 44% of the people out of 80 people undertaken for survey have supported That Cambridge tourism industry support sustainable development. On the other hand it must be seen that a significant amount of people out of the 80 people undertaken for survey have said that the artistic ring on the fact that Cambridge is following sustainable development. It is seen from the above table and figure that 19% of the people things such regarding sustainable development being practiced.

  1. Do you agree that Cambridge shall undertake some actions to develop tourism?

Thoughts

Respondents

Percentage of Respondents

Total no. of respondents

Strongly Agree

40

50

80

Agree

15

19

80

Neutral

5

6

80

Disagree

15

19

80

Strongly Disagree

5

6

80

Table 8: Thoughts of people on actions undertaken

(Source: created by author)

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Figure 10: Thoughts of people on actions undertaken

(Source: created by author)

Analysis: Tourism needs to be in regard with the people in the society by confronting their needs and satisfaction level. This is why it is important that every society for tourism spot must make sure that there is proper development in the field of tourism so as to make sure that there is no lagging behind. The fast growing world. Similar thought have been awakened by 50% of the people undertaken for survey by making sure that the tick the “strongly agree” option provided to them. It must also be seen and noted that in the above table agreeing on the situation of bringing in more Development Industry by Cambridge he is backed by both negative and positive answers with similar 19% out of 80. It can be charged so because there may be situation where 19% of people who are agreeing on development find few places or field lacking behind the other stages of the world and on the other hand the 19 person who are not agreeing for development finds everything correct.

  1. Why tourism promotion is necessary for Cambridge?

Reasons

Respondents

Percentage of Respondents

Total no. of respondents

Employment

45

56

80

Increasing of pending in local community

10

13

80

Infrastructure

15

19

80

Diversification

5

6

80

Environmental advantages

5

6

80

Table 9: Importance of promotion in tourism

(Source: created by author)

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Figure 11: Importance of promotion in tourism

(Source: created by author)

Analysis: For clear understanding of section that leads to the definition of making tourism industry for more functional and effective there is always a need to make sure that promotion is done at its best. Most of the scenarios from the table and from the figure above can justify that in response to the operation of the organisation or a society. From the above table It is seen that promotion of tourism is important because it would help in gathering employment in the society. This thought is backed by 56% of the people undertaken for survey out of it. Nevertheless it is also seen that community development also comes as an important factor which is guided in terms of having the promotion for tourism. It is seen that 13% of the people undertaken for survey out of 80 have supported such. It must be considered that infrastructure also gets an important place with the promotion of tourism in society, since, It is seen that 19% out of 80 people undertaken for survey have supported such view.

  1. What steps shall government take in developing tourism of Cambridge?

Options

Respondents

Percentage of Respondents

Total no. of respondents

Allow Corporate sponsorships for heritage buildings

40

50

80

Creating experiences not sightseeing spots

20

25

80

Aggressive tourism marketing strategy

5

6

80

Building great roads and access points

10

13

80

Sell niche tourism areas separately

5

6

80

Table 10: Steps that can be taken

(Source: created by author)

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Figure 12: Steps that can be taken

(Source: created by author)

Analysis: In terms of understanding the situation in Cambridge regarding the development of tourism industry, it is important to understand the thoughts of the common people regarding the states that are naturally to be undertaken by the government. It is essential to understand from the above table and figure that it is clear most of the people in the society are in the paper for making the tourism industry more developed in situation like this with such huge growth of other industries. From the above table it can be understood that 50% of the people undertaken for the survey regarding understanding the steps that are needed to be undertaken by government says that corporate sponsorship of The Heritage building would be great for the development of the tourism industry. It can be seen that 50% out of 80 people for survey have agreed over this. It is clear that 25% of the people have supported that experiences only count not the business sightseeing. It is also noticed that a very few amount of people agree in making the tourism marketing strategy an aggressive one.

4.1 Qualitative Analysis

  1. How Butler’s theory of tourism development is helpful for developing tourism?

Butler started working in the year 1980 on carrying capacity of tourism as well as sustainability. According to his opinions tourist attractions and the Imperial sites tend to be fragile and are supposed to be managed carefully so that they are not enabled for exceeding capacity limits. Tourist destinations carry seeds with them of their own damage and destruction. Therefore each and every tourist destination and its management multiply trick for managing the sites and their importance so that they do not get self destructive (Poria et al. 2014). In 1980 Butler showed that the tourism cycle could be of six distinct stages. Butler has explain the concept of the tourism cycle regarding evaluation where he has stated that visitors may initially come to any area or site in relatively small numbers is restricted by the lack of accessibility local knowledge and facilities. However, with the increase in the number of facilities provided and with the growth of awareness among people count of visitors shall simultaneously increase. With proper information about marketing dissemination and provision of further facilities including ancillary services popularity of any tourist destination would grow in a rapidly. Apparently rate of the increase in the number of visitors shall decline as the carrying capacity levels are reached. this can be identified in the context of the environmental factors for example water quality air quality and scarcity of land and even the physical factors such as transportation accommodation as well as other services.

With the decline in attractiveness of the area as compared to other areas which has been the case of Cambridge actual count of the visitors decrease due to overuse of the area as well as impacts of the visitors. Typical cause regarding the development has a definite pattern. People choose distinctive areas and localities for staying out and feel relaxed based upon their profession (Hannam et al. 2014). This can be explained with example of painters who search how to the unusual and untouched places for painting. They often opt for places which are calm and serene as well as suitable for some art. The 6 stages of butler's Tourism Development include exploration stage, involvement stage, development stage, consolidation stage, stagnation stage, and decline and rejuvenation stage. The exploration stage employee’s limited number of the tourists and the tour packages are based over primary attractions of tourist which may be cultural or natural. No particular secondary attraction of tourism is present in this stage and tourism has hardly any social economical significance to the local residents or the neighbours. In the second stage of the tourism cycle he has indicated the involvement of local residents and emergence of the secondary tourism that facilitates guest houses. Seasons of tourism are developed in this stage and pressure over government is also created in order to improve the transport and accessibilities for the tourists. in the 3rd stage the development stage high count of the tourists may even exceeds local population at the time of peak periods and heavy advertisements shell create well defined market for tourists. Involvement of local people as well as controlling the tourist areas rapidly declines. External organisations eventually provide support to the destination and management of tourism in the region where secondary attractions of tourists are also managed. Both cultural as well as Natural attractions will be marketed and developed and local people of the neighbours of the region experience hard physical changes to that particular area which may not get any approval. In the consideration stage growth of tourism generally slows but number of the tourists makes seeds local population. Cambridge can be considered to be in this stage as excessive tourists can be found in Cambridge for which the tourist spot has lost its attraction and suffered damage and destruction. Advertising and Marketing in this stage is considered to be wide reaching and major tourism chains and franchises shall be represented. Resort areas shall have well defined districts for recreational business and Tourism arouses discontent and opposition from few local people. In the stagnation stage numbers of visitors have reached the peak and carrying capacity had been exceeded. According to Butler tourism often causes social economic and environmental problems. There is lots become separated from the Geographic environment and artificial attractions of tourism supersede the primary attractions in the stage. The entire area is well established in its image but no longer becomes fashionable. The last stage of the decline and rejuvenation stage can be fragmented into 5 distinct scenarios which are as follows:

  • successful development generally leads to a renewed growth
  • minor modifications of the capacity levels leads to the modest growth within tourism
  • Tourism becomes stabilized by the cutting of capacity levels
  • continuing overuse of the resources as well as lack of the investment leads to a decline
  • war disease and other catastrophe causes immediate collapse within the tourism

Therefore, following butler's model of Tourism Development is quite essential for Cambridge in order to socialize and promote sustainable tourism within the particular area or region. It is highly required that butler's model and its 6 stages are being followed in order to make Cambridge one of the most attractive and impressive tourist destinations all across the globe and can maintain its culture and uniqueness throughout even if the number of visitors increase with time. Involvement of the neighbours and local residence of Cambridge in promoting the tourist sites destinations and culture is highly important for contributing to the tourism sector of the region.

  1. Why it is important for Cambridge to promote sustainable tourism?

Tourism is broadly referred to as the largest industry of the world and can be referred to as the means and source of achieving development in the community and socializing with paper. Understanding of the communities perceptions over tourism highly impacts the overall tourism community and it is quite significant. Prime reason behind the rising interest of visiting different tourist places which are of consumer’s interest has been significantly increasing as an evidence that the tourism can have both negative and positive impacts upon the local communities which are involved within the particular area region. A perception of different communities over the tourism seems to be impactful and a likely to be the most significant planning required for a successful development in the community. It is important for Cambridge in promoting the Sustainable Tourism as financial considerations, brand recognition, company image, marketing opportunities and environmental impacts can be related to Sustainable Tourism as well as the development of the entire region. Sustainable Tourism can be considered as the nutshell which develops a concept citing any place being a tourist as well as trying to make positive impacts upon the locality environment economy and Society. Sustainable Tourism implies supporting the locally managed organisations and with the businesses as well as participating in different activities which do not necessarily harm environment or exploit the local culture. It is match of Need for Cambridge to follow the path of Sustainable Tourism in order to make itself a reputable and prestigious site. Sustainable Tourism is referred to the eco-friendly tourism where geothermal hotels conservation efforts and the companies with carbon footprints under much concern. Several advantages of maintaining Sustainable Tourism is attached which can be marked as:

Benefits of local community:

The local community residents are not only benefited by employment opportunities but there also advantages in exploring locally operated and owned businesses on a frequent note being a sustainable tourist and the money directly goes back within the community. This typically means that the businesses owned by the local community residence bring accurate profits which help local community to stay profitable for a longer period of time even if the tourists have already left the places. Along with the management of the tourist places and destinations communities surrounding those particular regions get famous in order of providing ancillary services which are included in the Hospitality Services of tour packages. Nearby markets, banks, ATMs, cyber cafes, malls and other commercial areas are largely used by the tourists in order to make the tourism healthy and memorable.

Conserving natural resources:

Several unique ecosystems of Earth are made up in a way in which they are for particular and definite reasons which are merely not renewable. Tourists are required to avoid damaging any kind of natural resources and the Heritage of that particular region. Cambridge therefore needs to promote Sustainable Tourism as huge number of tourists who come and visit various places underneath the concerned area may damage and be destructive to the eco friendly places and destinations. in order to conserve the natural resources the management of tourism in Cambridge is supposed to undertake serious actions and employee proper rules and regulations as incorporated by the government for making the tourists aware about the lass caused due to damage. Therefore, excessive number of visitors shall not be given permit to visit the amenities and attractions of Cambridge where natural resources can be found in huge number.

Attractive tourist destinations:

Through supporting the locally Run tour businesses and Guides tourists are helpful and assisted about culture as well as environment of the region which is of the visit. Tour guides assist in understanding the origin and development of the culture related to a particular tourist site and excessive knowledge and information can be gathered through such interactions. Industry of tourism naturally helps in maintaining the culture and the natural land of area along with empowering and employing the local residents who are approved of living in the community for long period of time without having any need to change for the tourists. Sustainable Tourism therefore creates better places not only for visiting but also to live.

Avoiding resettlement and displacement of the local neighborhood:

Resettlement and displacement becomes consequence of the tourism as the tourist agencies along with the major food and Hotel companies come into advantages and benefits from influx of the potential customers. They do not need to care about survival of the local life. Rather they care for the profitability index and revenue generated from opening the businesses for attracting tourist and the visitors of the place. Sustainable Tourism advocates finding best combination regarding the profitable and exciting tourism and even continued the existence of the indigenous communities. Making programs which would exploit the culture and heritage of local communities for the entertainment of tourists must not be supported and accompanied by the tourists themselves. Industry of traditional tourism with additively large Eco footprint does not seem to be sustainable. Travelling becomes quite expensive and where especially experience in going and visiting the unique lands as well as cultural areas. Each and every prime tourist destination may begin to confirm as well as look same contorting themselves in offering sem services along with experiences.

Apart from all these impacts both negative and positive impacts of the development shall be considered from a comparatively wider perspective. Use of the natural resources by the future generations is not required to be impeded my present generation and therefore resources are supposed to be reserved for the future. Every political and social group which is affected by impact of the development must participate in the decision making procedures. Procedure of decision making must be concerned both environmentally and economically. Proper development of the local area must be taken under considerable account including sustainability of the political, ecological, agricultural, local and social systems.

  1. What could be the issues of tourism development at Cambridge?

Physical environment as well as social fabric of the host community often gets formed due to excessive tourist arrival and rural underdevelopment. Natural environment along with tourism are linked inescapable e ensuring that the conservation and preservation occurs. As a result of the tourism avoiding you overexploitation and pollution shall be inevitable activities of the tourism planners along with the managers who required managing the rural resources for the tourism activities. Ensuring sustainability of the tourism projects in many regions such as Cambridge have relied upon preserving the natural resource base, community participation on the project and local culture. This in turn compass the entrepreneurs of the tourism companies for integrating environmental as well as social objectives in a more responsible way as well as distinguishing from other tourism entrepreneurs. Majority of the traditional livelihood in the rural and remote areas get abundant as tourism becomes an additional source of the livelihood.

Scenes with the traditional as well as nontraditional avenues play significant role in the tourism development a particular Holistic approach towards sustainability shall be required for continuing cultural social as well as economic well-being of the human communities as one of the most integral part of the environmental well being. In order to review the Holistic procedure of the Sustainable Tourism in Cambridge, awareness and understanding of the stakeholders involving community has been always the primary requirement.

Environmental impacts of the tourism can be broadly illustrated as did exercise number of visitors the area becomes polluted and is most harmful for the survival of local communities as well as for the tourists. Due to the habits and living styles all the lifestyles of tourists before much from the residence living in host areas on the local communities therefore their tastes and preferences medicine for which it impacts upon the psychological state of the localites. In order to attract from different sectors both government and the private entrepreneurs have already started for optimising opportunities to attract tourists towards their countries. For exploring numerals potentials which are inherent within the tourism industry several countries have begun designing their cities regions as well as states in a way which would attract tourist investors as well as the tourists. Development of the tourism being the alternative source of revenue has been a new strategy in most of the countries including Cambridge due to its multiplier effect over other sectors as well as regions of the economy. This has created huge volume of the employment for both and skilled unskilled labour. Impacts of the tourism can be felt within the nation environmental, economically and socially. At the level of society benefits main cut across the auditions designs as well as the professionals regardless of the gender, age bracket and race. Environmentally, tourism poses little potential for conserving natural environment, preserving the antiquities, traditional behaviours such as food, language, heritage, crafts, arts and culture as well as historical monuments. In an economical way, Tourism basically creates wealth which is capable to stimulate both foreign and domestic awnings of any particular Nation from the direct activities on the associated businesses. Some critical issues in the tourism of Cambridge marks higher levels of the fall during summer Seasons at their peak Times where the challenge becomes maintaining and ensuring higher levels of the customer service 2 almost 1000 visitors per day. Along with this ensuring that the service continuous for delivering unique elements which essentially provide reasons for the visitors to get engaged with the management of the tourism services online or in person. In addition, being a Tourism Organisation they have entirely funded themselves on their own in past years where there was strong focus over maintaining as well as developing sustainable streams of income alongside the delivery of strategic objectives. The tourists unintentionally degrade the beauty and richness of Cambridge as huge number of visitors has become the greatest issue in Cambridge tourism. The localites face it is a threat posed on them as they are always under a fear of satisfying customers who come from all across the world.

  1. What are some recommendations that could be provided for promoting sustainable tourism and bringing tourism development at Cambridge?

Some possibly best aspects to run a business within the Cambridge can be identified that includes engaging with the wide range of the organisations based both within Cambridge as well as in the surrounding area from the visitor attractions to the hotels as well as from the shops to the restaurants. In addition to this wide range of the visitors can be made from all across the world. Cambridge is rich in history culture and beauty as well as famous being the centre of the innovation and Science. It becomes a privilege as well as an absolute pleasure for visiting such area and makes it happening tourism destination like other attractive places. However, there is some loopholes and causes due to which Cambridge tourism lack excellence in spite of putting efforts in managing customers on a daily note. In order to mitigate the challenges encountered by Cambridge tourism management, government as well as the private tourism entrepreneurs Must Think about some broad ideas and concepts which can be introduced in order to make the tourism as a soothing source of revenue and not a hard source.

Keeping abreast of the developments within Technology is significant to the businesses such as hotels and restaurants within the Cambridge and other businesses delivering Customer services. It ensures that the businesses provide exact and accurate information to the visitor's as well as provides with the constant opportunities to enhance and develop experiences of the visitors. Technology has enabled several businesses for issuing e tickets to the visitors for varied range of the activities and therefore are currently exploding distinct ways for which they can represent height is product within the Cambridge and make the reason more attractive sensor less engaging to the younger visitors using local digital solutions and augmented reality. Providing best customer service is always recommended to the government and other private businesses in order to attract tourists from different parts of the world however it becomes difficult when huge visitors visit the area each day. Encouraging visitors as well as supporting them in each and every activity that they would find interesting and attractive would be the best possible method for outranging the customer service and bring in excellence. Innovative transport facilities as well as other accessibilities and ancillary services such as luggage, car parking and Internet services must be provided to the customers at a reasonable rate so that they find comfortable to stay within the region.

Allowing corporate sponsorship for the Heritage buildings is much essential for managing the customers of visitors when they come on a large note and may degrade and damage the beauty of the region. By enabling corporate sponsorships the tourism management of Cambridge can essentially provide proper accessibilities and facilities to the customers within a definite amount of funding as well as manage their activities through different sources. Corporate entrepreneurs promote modern piece of the entire city as the centre for Innovation and Science along with the rich heritage possessed by Cambridge. In the physical terms they are even able to do all this through the several centers showcasing past, future and present of Cambridge.

In order to create experiences rather than only sightseeing Sports the businesses in Cambridge shell actively network along with other organisations or destinations for sharing best practices. This would be particularly important provided a significant decline in the public funding for the tourism over past years and the need for the Tourism Organisation for becoming self sufficient even more. Show the partnerships developed on a both regional and national context the businesses would be able to drop down the funding for national tourism for Cambridge. Promotional activities and advertisements must be wide enough and outline gym in order to attract more and more customers from all over the world and therefore proper marketing strategies and techniques are needed to be established. Digital marketing is one of the newest and fastest platforms for carrying out the promotional activities as well as advertisements and reach out to the customer on the earliest time possible. It is quite important for the private entrepreneurs as well as government for attracting tourists who have not visited Cambridge yet and therefore intellectual marketing techniques and tools are to be used for making the region well known and popular.

Making the infrastructure and other facilities accessible to the tourists, it becomes easier for the government as well as the private tourism entrepreneurs of the region for attracting more and more tourists. It is quite important that the tourists enjoy proper and advanced facilities so that they would feel comfortable in the new area or locality and it would gradually increase the reputation and image of the tourist destination. Even the neighborhood of the tourist destination must be Cooperative and is required to operate several functionalities to comfort the customers arriving at Cambridge from all over the world. The government must build up the infrastructure in a way so that the customers find it quite convenient and comfortable while travelling in and around the region of the locality of Cambridge. Special attractions and amenities for the teenagers and children must be made up so that they do not find the area boring and monotonous. Refreshment and recreational activities must be provided by the government and private tourism entrepreneurs. Attractive hotels as well as superior quality serviced restaurants shall be present within the locality of the neighborhood of Cambridge in order to solve the customers with best of the services within the tourism package. Promotional discounts and offers are also one of the most attractive techniques to make the tour packages special and precious for the customers and therefore it induces them for making proper tours and travels. It is highly required that the customers are given more facilities within the tour packages then there to get separately by paying off. Customers often find opportunities to relax at reasonable packages so that you did not have to bear the burden of extra cost and every type of client can afford such packages. The tour agencies as well as the guides must be always available for the customers with the 24/7 service.

Chapter 5: Conclusion

5.0 Conclusion

From the above research paper it is clear that actually exist in terms of tourism is based upon better understanding of actor and resolution that required amount of decision making and planning. Opportunity and achievement that allows the operation of us it with the help of tourism industry get their importance requires proper understanding of fact that tourism industry does not go individually into a place what is followed by proper aspect and evolution. Resulting in a very important factor research paper have clearly helped In understanding what is required to be developed for better management of strategy in making tourism industry something more than that is required for operation.

From the above research paper in addition to the previous information presented it is also clear that marking of the development issues and thought leave the people in the society are well documented with the help of Survey and interview. Intervention of Informatics and research paper is guided with the help of clear understanding of factors which are in terms of making sure that the butler theory of tourism is well guiding the basic important and requirement of tourism in a society. Model for the research paper have clearly understood the views, thoughts and ideas of the people regarding tourism as a basic factors that guides the operation of tourism in the society.

The research paper have also mentioned about different theories and possible factors which required important description and definition for understanding tourism as a source of income as well as a source of developing the society. It is also clear that methods for making this research work a successful one have also been implemented and well versed and therefore resulting in development that would guide success throughout the society of Cambridge.

5.1 Linking with objectives

A research work can be only deemed as successful only if the research work is based and directly related to the objectives predetermined and the results outcome.

To evaluate butler's theory of the tourism development there have been clear discussion in literature review that have clearly described about the butler theory of tourism development in the operation. The literature review have clearly made factors easier to understand regarding the importance of Atlas theory of Tourism Development moreover it is seen that assessment and its applicability in the research war have also been described hair. Butler’s theory of Tourism Development have been in contest of literature review so as to make sure that every inch of information is well supported with promissory factors that are greater than values and ideas of common people but following the satisfaction level of those who maintain or determine the operation of tourism industry. Moreover, the literature review section have done best possible work to make sure that the butler theory of Tourism Development is well understood by the readers and the future researcher who will be taking this research as a form of guidance.

To relate the butler theory in the context of tourism at the Cambridge They have been instances in the research paper with the providing of Information and factors through the help of literature review and the section of data analysis part. The stages of business operation from its opening to its strength and its downfall have been presented through numerical values from the point of view of the customer. It is clear and well understood that the information regarding Butler theory of tourism at Cambridge is clearly depicted with the mentality of the customer in the society. Development of tourism and its important factors in this research have been possible through the Strength and the important marking guiding of the economic significance. Redirection has well managed the words and values that it required understanding of the butler theory in addition to the required success of the organisation.

To identify issues of the tourism development at Cambridge have been possible with the help of data analysis section in the research work. Evidently it can be understood that issues of tourism in the society cannot be directly. It out but can be clearly impersonated with the challenges faced by the customers in the society. Thoughts and regards of factor that requires clear understanding of information have been presented in the Table 1 which is identifying the age group of the people and table 2, which marks the income level of the customers in this. Is a factor of issues that could work the tourism industry to be known successful as in terms of proper public purpose perspective. Moreover the tables in the data analysis section, Have also mentioned about the proper steps that could be undertaken to understand the issues including road and thought of the common people in society.

To provide or suggest fruitful recommendations regarding the up-gradation of Cambridge for a well-known tourist destination have been justified and cleared by the data analysis section of the research paper. It is usually important to understand that recommendation provided by the literature review and the table of data analysis part are from the perspective of the customers are the stakeholders and the tourist who deem to have the important placement factor for the understanding of the requirement of the tourism industry. More carefully, there have understood of the factors including the understanding of the importance that is hidden in terms of protecting the heritage buildings, building roads and better communication and transportation, making tourism an experience not sightseeing and many more.

5.2 Research Limitations

Successful completion of a research work demand ample amount of factors to be taken care of so that those factors does not hinder the operation of the researcher while achieving their objective or goal in successful manner. It is clear that without limitation and research advantages are two sides of a single coin and therefore facing one of these have 50% probability in the whole research work. For the successful completion of the research work there have been issues regarding time frame. The time frame is an important aspect while completion of a research since it demands clear understanding of time management and proper identification of resources within time that would guide the development of the research work till the achieving of the outcome. The time limit has been a factor for the completion of the project since the frame that was ever did was much less than the actual needed time. However, for the completion of the project in time there have been steps undertaken which mitigated the issue of time frame but did not mitigate the common factor of scarcity of time. Limitation in terms of understanding and analysing the percentage values of the views and ideas presented in form of research survey questionnaire also proved to be a critical point in the completion of the research work. The qualitative research through interview have also been hectic as because digging out the actual information or proper analysing the views of the people interviewed is really next to something very hectic. Although, there were ample resources present for the topic selected but the financial resource that prove After Dark for the completion of these research in a successful manner. Visiting places and going through Limited source of resources with Limited amount of financial backup did mark a point in terms of research limitation.

5.3 Recommendations

From the above research work it is evidently understood that there are steps that are needed to be undertaken as fast as possible for the betterment of the tourism industry in Cambridge. With the following of the Butler theory of tourism it is clear and evident that responsibility of development lies in the hand of common people and in the hand of government. Most importantly the recommendation required proper implementation also, as because most of the examination is based upon the actual resources required for making tourism and attractive occupation as well as segment for developing countries as well as developed ones. It is clear that achievement of tourism development and success can be only possible with thorough understanding of the society and their needs with association to the requirement level of the customer and the resources present.

Allow corporate sponsorships for heritage buildings, can be implemented in the process of making sure that the organisation in terms of tourism segment is made to be a successful sector in the society. Most importantly before implementation of the corporate society on the Heritage building it is to be understood that pros and cons goes head to head while any new implementation over a segment. Corporate sponsorship for heritage building would provide extra amount of insurance for those building as because Heritage brings up the most chances for tourism in a particular society or a country.

Creating experiences and not sightseeing spot is also a kind of recommendation for the government as because it indulges the development of tourism in not only from the view of business but also in the view of human thought and beliefs. Making new experiences target or projects the information regarding the situation that tourism must provide to the customer are the tourist in the society. This recommendation would like to include situation which mark the happiness of the tourist so that they can discuss it with others regarding the pleasure that they caught while making the tourism as their refreshment idea.

The government could also ensure that there is proper accessibility of connectivity from the mainland to the tourist spot itself. Successful understanding of situation, regarding the importance of proper roads and access point acts as the development options for most of the problem for any society providing service in terms of tourism.

Aggressive tourism marketing strategies could also be implemented but it can be appointed in a manner that aggression does not bring food full result in long-term views therefore there can be other alternative which may be included instead of aggression in marketing strategies. The disbelief over the marketing strategy in aggressive manner were also shown through the survey conducted among 80 people

Now the recommendation for allowing corporate sponsorship for heritage buildings well supported with the highest number of respondents from the one selected for survey therefore it can be made into a situation which would like to implement this has recommending factor of development.

5.4 Future scopes

The research work have developed the proper Framework for understanding the views and ideas of the common people who were surveyed and interviewed regarding their thought on the model based on tourism. It has clearly supported the Framework on which research project is based and have provided the researcher ample opportunity together much information which is worth a lifetime. The research work would provide a greater scope or advantage to the Future research fellow workers in terms of understanding the Butler’s theory of tourism and its implementation in real life. The definitions provided in literature review and the theories presented will give ample of opportunity for the readers in future to go in outer knowledge on importance of tourism and the importance of generic model required. The potential application of the research work is based up on the way the future Research and readers will implement but it can be clearly understood that the applicability of the model presented in the topic of this research work will be of use importance in conducting research similar to the topic chosen. A wide sense of understanding it is clear that the research project does not only relates to a single thought of just completing a research project but also provide scope of understanding what tourism is capable of in making an economy a huge development arena. While concentrating on the future scope that the research work would provide not mentioning of the importance that the survey has provided would prove effective in understanding the research work. The server in terms of quantity when a light is provided in the research will give the future leaders and researchers and overview of the society and the mentality of the people present in it. The qualitative data that have been gathered from interview in the research work will provide the researcher the manner that they need to implement while interviewing someone in terms and regards of the topic presented and undertaken.

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Appendices

Appendix 1: Survey Questionnaire

1. What is your age?

  • 20-30
  • 30-40
  • 40-50
  • 50 and above

2. What is your annual income?

  • 30000-40000
  • 40000-50000
  • 50000 and above

3. Do you like visiting places?

  • Yes
  • No

4. How often do you make trips and tours?

  • Very often
  • Often
  • Neutral
  • Less
  • Negligible times

5. What type of destination do you prefer?

  • Coastal destination
  • Urban destination
  • Rural destination
  • Hilly destination

6. Do you think Cambridge is a good tourist destination?

  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

7. Do you agree Cambridge promotes sustainable tourism?

  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

8. Do you agree that Cambridge shall undertake some actions to develop tourism?

  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

9. Why tourism promotion is necessary for Cambridge?

  • Employment
  • Increasing of pending in local community
  • Infrastructure
  • Diversification
  • Environmental advantages

10. What steps shall government take in developing tourism of Cambridge?

  • Allow Corporate sponsorships for heritage buildings
  • Creating experiences not sightseeing spots
  • Aggressive tourism marketing strategy
  • Building great roads and access points
  • Sell niche tourism areas separately

Appendix 2: Interview questionnaire

  1. How Butler’s theory of tourism development is helpful for developing tourism at Cambridge?

1st manager: “According to me with the increase in the number of facilities provided and with the growth of awareness among people count of visitors shall simultaneously increase.”

2nd manager: “I think with the decline in attractiveness of the area as compared to other areas which has been the case of Cambridge actual count of the visitors decrease due to overuse of the area as well as impacts of the visitors.”

3rd manager: “In accordance to the question I believe that no particular secondary attraction of tourism is present in this stage and tourism has hardly any social economical significance to the local residents or the neighbours. In the second stage of the tourism cycle he has indicated the involvement of local residents and emergence of the secondary tourism that facilitates guest houses”

4th manager: “As per my perception advertising and Marketing in this stage is considered to be wide reaching and major tourism chains and franchises shall be represented. Resort areas shall have well defined districts for recreational business and Tourism arouses discontent and opposition from few local people.”

5th manager: “In my opinion apparently rate of the increase in the number of visitors shall decline as the carrying capacity levels are reached. this can be identified in the context of the environmental factors for example water quality air quality and scarcity of land and even the physical factors such as transportation accommodation as well as other services.”

  1. Why it is important for Cambridge to promote sustainable tourism?

1st manager: “According to me tour guides assist in understanding the origin and development of the culture related to a particular tourist site and excessive knowledge and information can be gathered through such interactions.”

2nd manager: “I think Cambridge is supposed to undertake serious actions and employee proper rules and regulations as incorporated by the government for making the tourists aware about the lass caused due to damage.”

3rd manager: “In accordance to the question I believe that along with the management of the tourist places and destinations communities surrounding those particular regions get famous in order of providing ancillary services which are included in the Hospitality Services of tour packages. Nearby markets, banks, ATMs, cyber cafes, malls and other commercial areas are largely used by the tourists in order to make the tourism healthy and memorable.”

4th manager: “In my opinion resettlement and displacement becomes consequence of the tourism as the tourist agencies along with the major food and Hotel companies come into advantages and benefits from influx of the potential customers. They do not need to care about survival of the local life.”

5th manager: “As per my perception

  1. What could be the issues of tourism development at Cambridge?

1st manager: “I think due to the habits and living styles all the lifestyles of tourists before much from the residence living in host areas on the local communities therefore their tastes and preferences medicine for which it impacts upon the psychological state of the localites.”

2nd manager: “As per my perception scenes with the traditional as well as nontraditional avenues play significant role in the tourism development a particular Holistic approach towards sustainability shall be required for continuing cultural social as well as economic well-being of the human communities as one of the most integral part of the environmental well being.”

3rd manager: “In my opinion environmentally, tourism poses little potential for conserving natural environment, preserving the antiquities, traditional behaviours such as food, language, heritage, crafts, arts and culture as well as historical monuments.”

4th manager: “In accordance to the question I believe that physical environment as well as social fabric of the host community often gets formed due to excessive tourist arrival and rural underdevelopment. Natural environment along with tourism are linked inescapable e ensuring that the conservation and preservation occurs.”

5th manager: “According to me the tourists unintentionally degrade the beauty and richness of Cambridge as huge number of visitors has become the greatest issue in Cambridge tourism.”

  1. What are some recommendations that could be provided for promoting sustainable tourism and bringing tourism development at Cambridge?

1st manager: “In my opinion creating experiences rather than only sightseeing Sports the businesses in Cambridge shell actively network along with other organizations or destinations for sharing best practices.”

2nd manager: “According to me providing best customer service is always recommended to the government and other private businesses in order to attract tourists from different parts of the world however it becomes difficult when huge visitors visit the area each day.”

3rd manager: “In accordance to the question I believe that allowing corporate sponsorship for the Heritage buildings is much essential for managing the customers of visitors when they come on a large note and may degrade and damage the beauty of the region.”

4th manager: “I think Keeping abreast of the developments within Technology is significant to the businesses such as hotels and restaurants within the Cambridge and other businesses delivering Customer services.”

5th manager: “As per my perception there is some loopholes and causes due to which Cambridge tourism lack excellence in spite of putting efforts in managing customers on a daily note. In order to mitigate the challenges encountered by Cambridge tourism management, government as well as the private tourism entrepreneurs Must Think about some broad ideas and concepts which can be introduced in order to make the tourism as a soothing source of revenue and not a hard source.”