In a contingency table, the number of degrees of freedom is (2-1)(2-1) =1. If any one of the theoretical cell frequencies is less than 5, then the use of pooling method for chi-square test results in chi-square with zero degrees of freedom which is meaningless. In this case we apply a correction due to F. Yates, which is usually known as “Yates Correction for continuity”. This consists in adding 0.5 to the cell frequency which is less than 5 and then adjusting for the remaining cell frequencies accordingly. The chi-square test of goodness of fit is then applied without pooling method.
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