The potential of any electrode is the potential difference between it and the electrolyte surrounding the electrode. The electrode potential depends upon the nature of the metal, concentration of the metallic ions in solution and the temperature of the solution. When the ions are at unit activity and the temperature is 25°C (298K), the potential difference is called a standard electrode potential (SEO). The potential of a single electrode cannot be determined but the potential difference between the two electrodes can be accurately measured. Normal hydrogen electrode (NHE), also called standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), is the standard reference electrode 1. Thus the standard electrode potential of a metal may be defined as the potential difference in volts developed in a cell consisting of two electrodes, the pure metal in contact with a molar solution of one of its ions and the normal hydrogen electrode.
Electrode Potential—Factors Affecting It
Electrode potential of oxidation half-cell M/Mn+ (aq) with reaction
Eox depends on
(i) [Mn+], concentration of Ionic species
If [Mn+] increases, Eox decreases (figure)
We can say electrode is reversible with respect to Mn+
(ii) Temperature T
If T increases at constant [Mn+], Eox decreases.
Electrode potential of reduction half-cell Mn+ (aq) / M with reaction
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