A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress thus all gases are fluids, but not all liquids are fluids. A Newtonian fluid is defined to be a fluid whose shear stress is linearly proportional to the gradient of velocity in the direction perpendicular to the plane of shear and thus by this definition means regardless of the forces acting on a fluid, it continues to flow. By contrast, stirring a non.newtonian fluid can leave a hole behind and this will gradually fill up over time. Fluids display properties such as:
1 not resisting deformation, or resisting it only lightly by viscosity, and
2 The ability to flow or the ability to take on the shape of the container.
These properties are typically a function of their inability to support a shear stress in static equilibrium and make it to flow or deform.
Solids can be subjected to shear stresses, and to both compressive and tensile normal stress while ideal fluids can only be subjected to normal, compressive stress which is called pressure. In practical situations, real fluids display viscosity and so are capable of being subjected to low levels of shear stress.
1 continuity or mass conservation,
2 linear momentum conservation,
3 angular momentum conservation,
4 energy conservation
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