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Physical Properties Of The Alkynes
Being compounds of low polarity, the alkynes have physical properties that are essentially the same as those of the alkanes and alkenes. They are insoluble in water but quite soluble in the usual organic solvents of low polarity like ether, benzene, carbon tetrachloride etc. Their densities are, lower than the water. Their melting points and boiling points show the usual increase with increasing carbon number and the usual effects of chain branching.
The CH3 – C bond in propyne is favoured by overlap of a sp3 hybrid orbital from methyl carbon with a sp hybrid orbital from acetylenic carbon. The bond is between sp3-sp carbon. Since one orbital has more ‘s’ character than the other and is thereby more electronegative, the electron density in the resulting bond is not symmetrical. The unsymmetrical electron distribution results in a dipole moment larger than alkene but still relatively small. Symmetrically disubstituted alkynes have zero dipole moment.
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