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• #16199
kingsly
Participant

Let the number be x and its reciprocal is 1/x
We need to find the minimum value of the sum of x and 1/x
So Min (x + 1/x)
By the first order condition we have
d(x+1/x)/dx = 0
which means 1+ (-1)x^-2 = 0
solving for x we get x = +1 (since x can be only positive)
now if x is + 1 then minimum sum is 1 + 1 = 2

in reply to: Features of Perl language #16153
kingsly
Participant

The foundation and structure of Perl are derived from the traditional C language. The basic procedure including variable, expressions, assignment statements, brace- delimited blocks, control structures and subroutines was kept intact in the layout of initial codes and programs. However, many alterations and improvements have paved a path in the course of the language.

Apart from C, Perl also took inspiration from shell programming. The variables marked with leading sigils allow them to be interpolated directly into strings. The Perl language uses sigils for an access to variables and unlike other Sigil using languages, here the sigils do not represent the sort of variable but showcase the type of expression. Perl also boasts of several built-in functions that work in giving out tools used in shell programming through quite a many of these are executed by external programs such as sorting and calling operating system facilities.

kingsly
Participant

The city of Ridleyville should glaringly consider converting the decommissioned military base into elegant parkland owing to the reasons that it desires to augment the number of parkland and open space in the city, especially in the downtown riverfront area and is currently afflicted with budget deficit. Since converting a place into parkland would involve no big costs and that too along with the operating cost of parkland been agreed to be sponsored by the business houses in neighborhood further appends this choice of alternative. Moreover having a park with riverfront enhances its elegance and such view from the park, where everyone explores the nature, would be relished by its trippers and can also generate revenue by launching the boats on payment of some fees and hosting events like concerts and annual food festival “Taste of Ridleyville” which is attended by many elites in large masses and can substantially contribute to the government’s treasury. Furthermore since, Ridleyville is having no park on its extensive riverfront area, so it would have to consider this alternative only to fulfill its intent of having parkland in riverfront area.

The idea of developing a business complex in the area is not a feasible one, neither geographically nor economically, since the expenditure cost on infrastructural development of the business complex would eat up a big stake of government’s budget leading further collapse in the government treasury and moreover involving high and recurring environmental cleanups along with greater municipal services costs to keep the premises maintained, would commensurately offset the tax revenue that would be generated from the new businesses. Moreover the superfluous use of power, air conditioner in abundance by the business complexes and thereby emission of harmful gasses like CFC which disintegrate the ozone layer leads to many climatic disorders that degenerates the environment, while a parkland which composes of trees and grasses would help in the protection and preservation of the environment of the area and could substantially absolve the emissions of other business complexes of the downtown area which currently is devoid of any parkland. Another important thing is that business complex cannot cater disaster management to the natural disasters like floods, earthquake, and tsunami which are rife in vicinity of river, while a parkland could, which is a scientifically proven fact.

After-all having opted for parkland alternative the city of Ridleyville could accomplish both the foundational objectives that it seeks to attain i.e. the parkland and open area would increase in the downtown riverfront area and the budget deficit could convalesce through the revenue from the parkland. Therefore the pros of having parkland in the area subdue the benefits that a business complex could yield on the area of decommissioned military base in downtown riverfront area. And moreover there could be no downside of having parkland in an area which falls short of any other parkland, since park-lands play significant role in environment sustainability and disaster management, and besides that, a downtown area which is developed in all terms but lacking in greenery is similar like “A beautiful flower is incomplete without its leaves”. Development and environment protection have to go hand in hand; and not one at the cost of the other.

#15755
kingsly
Participant

in Python

`import random`

``` def onemillion_rand(count): return random.sample(range(1, 10000000),count) ```

`print(onemillion_rand(1000000))`

#15754
kingsly
Participant

`in php`

``` \$randomNumbersArray = giveRandNumber(1000000); ```

```function giveRandNumber(\$count) { \$array = array(); for(\$i = 0; \$i <= \$count; \$i++) { \$array[] = mt_rand(); } }```

#15749
kingsly
Participant

Asymmetric information was one of the fundamental reasons behind the financial crisis (subprime crisis) of 2008.

The Federal Reserve controls the level of short term interest rates in the U.S economy. Back in 1990 the boom in investment because of the dot com bubble was followed by a burst in 2000’s. The U.S economy slowed down and the Federal Reserve lowered the interest to 1%. The biggest dream for every person living in the United States of America was to have his/her own house and when interests rate were as low as 1%, people could see their dream turning into a reality and started to borrow from banks and buy houses. This led to an increase House prices, 8% in 2001 and 14% in 2004-2005. Hence, people started to buy even bigger homes than they should have not only for consumption purpose (for living in it) but also for investment purposes with the aim of selling it off at a higher value.

A significant portion of additional demand for loans came from segments of population with “low credit ratings”- the so called subprime segments, who had earlier been denied. On the supply side such low interest rate allowed bankers to take on more leverage in the sense that they can borrow significant amount of money from the FED at such low interest rates and make more risky bets than they would have if interest rates were higher. Hence there is an abundance of cheap credit that makes borrowing money easier for banks and for borrowers.

Now property was considered by the bankers as the safest collateral and with rising prices they were willing to make mortgage deals they assumed the buyer may not be able to repay. And if the buyer defaulted the bank would get a property asset whose value is rising, these loans are called the subprime mortgages given to people with bad credit (no proof of income no down payments) or people with no credit history or may be to people with even history of defaults.

These are called the subprime mortgages. This is where the problem of asymmetric information comes into the picture. THE BANKS ARE ADVERSELY SELECTING THE BORROWERS.

Coming back to the demand side the rising house prices gave the subprime borrowers the ability to keep refinancing into low interest rate mortgages(thus oiding defaults)even as the withdrew the home equity they had build up to buy more cars etc. The invest bankers in lieu of constantly rising property prices want to buy the mortgage, the lender(banks) sells it to him for a fee. The investment banker then borrowers millions of dollars to buy more such mortgages and turns them into CDO’S ( collateral debt obligation)including both prime and subprime mortgages. Here Moral Hazard comes into the picture since banks didn’t care about the quality of deals they were making because they sold them away in bundles and therefore sold the responsibility.

The investment banker divides the CDO’S into safe (AAA), OKAY, RISKY (UNRATED) and sells it to investors worldwide. The risky ones were sold to hedgers. Thus U.S financial sector thus bridged the gap between the over consuming and over stimulated U.S and the under consuming and under stimulated rest of the world but all this entire edifice rested on the housing market .New housing construction and existing housing sales provided new jobs in construction, real estate brokerage, and finance, while rising housing prices provided the home equity to refinance old loans and finance new consumption.

However all thus came to a halt after the FED raised interest rates and halted the house price rise in fact they plummeted. The homeowners began to default or just refuse to their loan back as they see the price of their own houses falling. The seemingly smart banker turns out to have a substantial portion of high rated but low quality securities on their balance sheet, some of the banks failed and some went bankrupt. The investors have also bought these and because they are worth nothing now the investors, don’t want to buy more, also go bankrupt and the entire financial system is frozen. Economies around the world went into a deep slump from which they are recovering now.

#15745
kingsly
Participant

Moral hazards: – this arises after the transaction has taken place. The lender runs the risk that the borrower may engage in activities that are undesirable from the lender’s point of view because they make it less likely that the loan will be paid back. For example, once borrowers have obtained a loan they may take big risks as they are playing with someone else’s money. As moral hazards lower the probability that the loan will be repaid lenders may decide that they would rather not make the loan.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MORAL HAZARD AND ADVERSE SELECTION

The main difference between the two is that adverse selection occurs when there’s lack of symmetric information prior to a transaction/deal between borrower/buyer and lender/seller. Whereas moral hazard occurs when there is asymmetric information between parties after the transaction has taken place.

in reply to: Solve it #15692
kingsly
Participant

in reply to: what is big data? #15589
kingsly
Participant

Know about big data here http://www.assignmenthelp.net/big-data

in reply to: What are the Fundamental Economics #15536
kingsly
Participant

Following are the fundamental of economics:

Decision Making and Cost-Benefit Analysis.
Division of Labour and Specialization.
Economic Institutions.
Economic Systems.
Incentives.
Money.
Opportunity Cost.
Productive Resources.
Productivity.
Property Rights.
Scarcity.
Technology.