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  • in reply to: What are the various types of departmentation? #16331
    ahtutor
    Participant

    VARIOUS TYPES OF DEPARTMENTATION:

    Departmentation means the division of work into smaller units and then rejoining these units into bigger units on the basis of similarities. Each unit is known as departments. Each department is organized and supervised by a person known as the departmental head.

    ADVANTAGES OF DEPARTMENTS:

    Specialization in work- Due to departmentation, people perform one task again and again which led to specialization in the work.

    Easy to handle- Another advantage of departmentation is that it becomes an easy task for departmental head to handle the work which led to efficiency in operations.

    DISADVANTAGES OF DEPARTMENTS:

    Bordem:- Departmentation leads to boredom as they perform one type of task over and again. Hence they got few or no opportunity to explore more things.

    Limits development of general managers:- According to a recent study, it has been shown that there is no scope for developments of managers as they handle same work over and again.

    VARIOUS TYPES OF DEPARTMENTATION:

    FUNCTION- WISE DEPARTMENTATION:

    Function- wise departmentation means the division of work into smaller units and rejoining them on the basis of similarity of work. For example- Production department will include tasks related to production while tasks related to marketing will be included in the marketing department. Usually small companies uses this approach.

    departmentation by function

    PRODUCT- WISE DEPARTMENTATION:

    Product-wise departmentation resorts where specialization is required in respect of specific products of the company. This type of structure is usually used by companies dealing with manufacturing of various products. For example- A company dealing in soaps, face powders and perfumes. Then all activities related to soaps will be included in one department.

    DEPARTMENTATION BY CUSTOMERS:

    This type of departmentation places greater emphasis on customers and distinguishes one type from another. For example- Division could be on the basis of industrial buyers, wholesale buyers, government buyers etc.

    GEOGRAPHICAL DEPARTMENTATION:

    This types of departmentation are generally adopted by large-scale companies. Purpose of this type of departmentation is to have a better face to face communication with the local interest in mind.

    ahtutor
    Participant

    Ans 6 and 4 respectively

    in reply to: How many lattice points are there in one unit cell of #15982
    ahtutor
    Participant

    Ans a) fcc – 14
    b) bcc – 9
    c) simple cubic – 8

    ahtutor
    Participant

    Ans Interstitial defect ( density increases)
    Vacancy defect ( density decreases) e.g. schottky defect

    in reply to: Define forbidden zone of an insulator #15978
    ahtutor
    Participant

    The large energy gap between valence band and conduction band in an insulator is called forbidden zone.

    ahtutor
    Participant
    • Note down important topics for reasoning such as the ‘P block elements, d & f block elements
    • Practice the Adsorption isotherm, Raoult’s Law, Packing fraction, Molar mass determination thoroughly. These are the topics which carry a lot of questions.
    • Solve at least 5 numericals every day from Physical Chemistry, Organic & Inorganic Chemistry. Make notes of preparing from sample papers and previous years exam papers.
    • Prepare for the conceptual questions on Numericals as that gives you a better understanding of the concepts and can strengthen your knowledge and give you a better grip on the subject.
    • Important chapters for exams like Organic Chemistry should be completely thorough as they carry more marks. Polymers, Bio-molecules and Chemistry in everyday are simple chapters and should be prepared initially. Give a lot of importance to Surface Chemistry as it is one of the most important part of the exam.
    ahtutor
    Participant

    GROUP 15 ELEMENTS contain N, P, As, Sb & Bi
    Their General electronic configuration: ns2np3

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    Dinitrogen is a diatomic gas while all others are solids.
    N & P are non-metals.
    As & Sb metalloids & Bi is a metal .This is due to decrease in ionization enthalpy & increase in atomic size.
    Electronegativity decreases down the group.

    CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
    Common oxidation states : -3, +3 & +5.
    Due to inert pair effect, the stability of +5 state decreases down the group and stability of +3 state increases.
    In case of nitrogen all oxidation states from +1 to +4 tend to disproportionate in acid solution for eg:- 3HNO2 –> HNO3 + H2O + 2NO

    Anamalous behaviour of nitrogen –
    due to its small size, high electronegativity, high ionization enthalpy and absence of d-orbitals. N2 has unique ability to form pπ-pπ multiple bonds where as the heavier members of this group do not form pπ-pπ bond because their atomic orbitals are so large & diffuse that they cannot have effective overlapping. Nitrogen exists as diatomic molecule with triple bond between the two atoms where as other elements form single bonds in elemental state. N cannot form dπpπ bond due to the non-availability of d-orbitals where as other elements can.

    TRENDS IN PROPERTIES
    Stability – NH3>PH3>AsH3>SbH3>BiH3.
    Bond dissociation enthalpy – NH3>PH3>AsH3>SbH3>BiH3
    Reducing character – NH3<PH3<AsH3<SbH3<BiH3
    Basic character – NH3>PH3>AsH3>SbH3>=BiH3.
    Acidic character – N2O3> P2O3> As2O3> Sb2O3> Bi2O3

    in reply to: Define azeotropes #15727
    ahtutor
    Participant

    Azeotropes are the mixtures of liquids which boil at constant temperature and get distilled without any change in composition.

    ahtutor
    Participant

    Upon adding a non-volatile solute like NaCl to water, the vapor pressure is lowered. The vapor pressure of this solution becomes equal to that of pure solid solvent which is the freezing point of the solution occurs at a lower temperature. Thus freezing point of NaCl solution is lower than that of pure solvent.

    ahtutor
    Participant

    When chloroform and acetone are mixed, the reaction has a negative ΔH i.e. heat is evolved and hence the escaping tendency of the molecules from the mixture decreases.

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