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January 5, 2018 at 10:18 am in reply to: What are the various types of departmentation? #16331
VARIOUS TYPES OF DEPARTMENTATION:
Departmentation means the division of work into smaller units and then rejoining these units into bigger units on the basis of similarities. Each unit is known as departments. Each department is organized and supervised by a person known as the departmental head.
ADVANTAGES OF DEPARTMENTS:
Specialization in work- Due to departmentation, people perform one task again and again which led to specialization in the work.
Easy to handle- Another advantage of departmentation is that it becomes an easy task for departmental head to handle the work which led to efficiency in operations.
DISADVANTAGES OF DEPARTMENTS:
Bordem:- Departmentation leads to boredom as they perform one type of task over and again. Hence they got few or no opportunity to explore more things.
Limits development of general managers:- According to a recent study, it has been shown that there is no scope for developments of managers as they handle same work over and again.
VARIOUS TYPES OF DEPARTMENTATION:
FUNCTION- WISE DEPARTMENTATION:
Function- wise departmentation means the division of work into smaller units and rejoining them on the basis of similarity of work. For example- Production department will include tasks related to production while tasks related to marketing will be included in the marketing department. Usually small companies uses this approach.
PRODUCT- WISE DEPARTMENTATION:
Product-wise departmentation resorts where specialization is required in respect of specific products of the company. This type of structure is usually used by companies dealing with manufacturing of various products. For example- A company dealing in soaps, face powders and perfumes. Then all activities related to soaps will be included in one department.
DEPARTMENTATION BY CUSTOMERS:
This type of departmentation places greater emphasis on customers and distinguishes one type from another. For example- Division could be on the basis of industrial buyers, wholesale buyers, government buyers etc.
This types of departmentation are generally adopted by large-scale companies. Purpose of this type of departmentation is to have a better face to face communication with the local interest in mind.May 27, 2017 at 4:45 am in reply to: what are the co-ordination numbers of octahedral voids and tetrahedral voids #15984
Ans 6 and 4 respectivelyMay 27, 2017 at 4:43 am in reply to: How many lattice points are there in one unit cell of #15982
Ans a) fcc – 14
b) bcc – 9
c) simple cubic – 8May 27, 2017 at 4:39 am in reply to: Which point defect in crystal units alters the density of a solid #15980
Ans Interstitial defect ( density increases)
Vacancy defect ( density decreases) e.g. schottky defectMay 27, 2017 at 4:30 am in reply to: Define forbidden zone of an insulator #15978
The large energy gap between valence band and conduction band in an insulator is called forbidden zone.March 21, 2017 at 3:50 am in reply to: Tips on how to score good marks in AP Chemistry examination #15743
March 17, 2017 at 5:41 am in reply to: Explain Physical and Chemical properties of group 15 Elements #15729
- Note down important topics for reasoning such as the ‘P block elements, d & f block elements
- Practice the Adsorption isotherm, Raoult’s Law, Packing fraction, Molar mass determination thoroughly. These are the topics which carry a lot of questions.
- Solve at least 5 numericals every day from Physical Chemistry, Organic & Inorganic Chemistry. Make notes of preparing from sample papers and previous years exam papers.
- Prepare for the conceptual questions on Numericals as that gives you a better understanding of the concepts and can strengthen your knowledge and give you a better grip on the subject.
- Important chapters for exams like Organic Chemistry should be completely thorough as they carry more marks. Polymers, Bio-molecules and Chemistry in everyday are simple chapters and should be prepared initially. Give a lot of importance to Surface Chemistry as it is one of the most important part of the exam.
GROUP 15 ELEMENTS contain N, P, As, Sb & Bi
Their General electronic configuration: ns2np3
Dinitrogen is a diatomic gas while all others are solids.
N & P are non-metals.
As & Sb metalloids & Bi is a metal .This is due to decrease in ionization enthalpy & increase in atomic size.
Electronegativity decreases down the group.
Common oxidation states : -3, +3 & +5.
Due to inert pair effect, the stability of +5 state decreases down the group and stability of +3 state increases.
In case of nitrogen all oxidation states from +1 to +4 tend to disproportionate in acid solution for eg:- 3HNO2 –> HNO3 + H2O + 2NO
Anamalous behaviour of nitrogen –
due to its small size, high electronegativity, high ionization enthalpy and absence of d-orbitals. N2 has unique ability to form pπ-pπ multiple bonds where as the heavier members of this group do not form pπ-pπ bond because their atomic orbitals are so large & diffuse that they cannot have effective overlapping. Nitrogen exists as diatomic molecule with triple bond between the two atoms where as other elements form single bonds in elemental state. N cannot form dπpπ bond due to the non-availability of d-orbitals where as other elements can.
TRENDS IN PROPERTIES
Stability – NH3>PH3>AsH3>SbH3>BiH3.
Bond dissociation enthalpy – NH3>PH3>AsH3>SbH3>BiH3
Reducing character – NH3<PH3<AsH3<SbH3<BiH3
Basic character – NH3>PH3>AsH3>SbH3>=BiH3.
Acidic character – N2O3> P2O3> As2O3> Sb2O3> Bi2O3March 17, 2017 at 5:38 am in reply to: Define azeotropes #15727
Azeotropes are the mixtures of liquids which boil at constant temperature and get distilled without any change in composition.March 17, 2017 at 5:36 am in reply to: Why does sodium chloride solution freeze at a lower temperature than water? #15725
Upon adding a non-volatile solute like NaCl to water, the vapor pressure is lowered. The vapor pressure of this solution becomes equal to that of pure solid solvent which is the freezing point of the solution occurs at a lower temperature. Thus freezing point of NaCl solution is lower than that of pure solvent.March 17, 2017 at 5:34 am in reply to: Why is an increase in temperature observed on mixing chloroform and acetone? #15723
When chloroform and acetone are mixed, the reaction has a negative ΔH i.e. heat is evolved and hence the escaping tendency of the molecules from the mixture decreases.