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  • in reply to: Can the freezing point and boiling point of water be same? #16329

    admin
    Keymaster

    Water is a transparent and colorless substance which is a constituent of earth’s stream, lakes, rivers etc. Its chemical formula is H2O, which means that one of its molecules contain a covalent bond of one oxygen with two hydrogen atoms.

    Boiling point of a substance is a temperature where vapors pressure equals to the pressure surrounding the liquid. The boiling point of water is 100℃. At this pressure, water will never be solid.

    Freezing point of a substance is a temperature where liquid changes into a solid state. The freezing point of water is 32℉ or 0℃. At this pressure, water will never be liquid.

    Now the question arises that can freezing and the boiling point of water be same?

    Yes, the boiling and freezing point of water can be same. Water releases energy when it changes from liquid to solid. The Same energy is required to change back from solid to liquid. During the change of state that is solid to liquid or liquid to solid, there is no change in temperature only release and uptake of energy took place. This process is the heat of fusion. Let consider an ice cube in your freezer. When we take out an ice cube from the freezer and put it in the warm kitchen, the heat from the surroundings starts entering to the ice cube. And at the melting point, there is enough thermal energy to break down these intermolecular forces. What we observe that there is no change in temperature but the bonds are breaking and the solid starts to melt.

    A similar explanation can be used for a reverse process that is freezing of water.


    admin
    Keymaster

    Answer:
    The six main pituitary hormones are:

    HORMONES FUNCTIONS
    OXYTOCIN Contraction of myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland and uterine smooth muscle.
    ADH/VASOPRESSIN Increases water permeability of collecting ducts of kidney and promotes vascular smooth muscle contraction.
    GROWTH HORMONE –RELEASING-HORMONE(GHRH) Stimulates the release of growth hormone.
    GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING-HORMONE(GnRH) Stimulates the release of both FSH&LH.
    THYROTROPIN-RELEASING-HORMONE(TRH) Stimulates the release of thyrotropin and prolactin.
    CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING-HORMONE(CRH) Stimulates the release of ß lipotropin and corticotrophin.
    • This reply was modified 2 years, 4 months ago by  admin.
    • This reply was modified 2 years, 4 months ago by  admin.
    • This reply was modified 2 years, 4 months ago by  admin.
    in reply to: Finance Questions #16027

    admin
    Keymaster

    Solution
    1% monthly = 12% annually
    (-) $100 + $200/(1+.12)10
    = (-) $100 + $64.39
    = (-) $35.60

    in reply to: Finance Questions #16024

    admin
    Keymaster

    Solution
    Real rate of return – 1.03/1.02 (30) – 1 = ∼34%

    • This reply was modified 2 years, 5 months ago by  admin.
    in reply to: Finance Questions #16022

    admin
    Keymaster

    Solution
    The exact real rate of return is 1.07/1.02 – 1 ≈ 4.90%

    in reply to: Finance Questions #16020

    admin
    Keymaster

    Solution
    The nominal interest rate is 0.99 * 1.03 – 1 ≈ 1.97%.
    Therefore, the cash flow is worth about
    = $1000000/1.0197 ≈ $980,681.

    in reply to: Finance Questions #16014

    admin
    Keymaster

    Solution
    Stock A –
    Rannual = finance questions image1 = 7.98%
    Stock B –
    Rannual = finance questions image2 = 7.88%
    Hence 10 years later the value of stock A was
    500*(1.0798) ^10 = $1,077.47
    While the value of stock B was
    500*(1.0788) ^10 = $1,067.53
    Instead if this stock had a constant return of 8% per year it would have returned 500*(1.08) ^10 = $1,079.46
    This is because the annualized (geometric average) rate of return is always lower than the simple arithmetic average.

    in reply to: Bond Price Calculation #16006

    admin
    Keymaster

    Solution:
    Annual Coupon Payments
    Assuming the face-value is $1000 for a Period of 5 years and bond yield = 4%
    (Annual) coupon payments = 1000 * 6% = 60
    Now, we use the Price of bond formula to calculate the present value of the coupons and then sum the present value of the face value:
    Price of Bond = PV(bond) =PV(coupons)+PV (Final Payment of Face Value)
    PV (bond) = 60 * [ 1/.04 – 1/.04*(1.04) ^5] + 1000/ (1.04) ^5
    = $1089.04
    Suppose instead these bonds pay semi-annually coupons and the yield is the semi-annual compounded rate

    Period = 5 years to 10 semesters
    Yield = 4% to 2% semi-annual
    Coupon payments = semi-annual = 1,000*3% = 30
    Price of bond = PV (Bond) = 30* [1/.02-1/.02*(1.02) ^10)] + 1000/ (1.02) ^10 =
    = $1089.83

    in reply to: Price of Bond #16004

    admin
    Keymaster

    Solution:
    In the case when the interest rate is 8%
    When Coupon Rate = 10% then the coupon payment or Cash inflow = $ 1000 * 10% = $100
    Bond Price= cash Inflow 1/(1+i)1 + cash Inflow 2/(1+i)2 + cash Inflow 3/(1+i)3 + …+ cash Inflow 20+Face Value./(1+i)20
    Bond Price = $100/(1+.08)sup>1 + $100/(1+.08)2 +$100/(1+.08)3 + $100/(1+.08)4 +.... + $100+$1000/(1+.08)20
    = $92.59 + $85.73 + $79.38 + $73.52 + $68.07 + $63.05 + $58.37 + $54.05 + $50.02 + $46.33 + $42.90 + $39.71 + $36.77 + $34.04 + $31.52 + $29.19 + $27.02 + $25.02 + $23.17 + $236.05
    = $1196.5

    When Coupon Rate is 4% then the coupon payment or Cash inflow will be $ 1000 * 4% = $40
    Bond Price = cash Inflow 1/(1+i)1 + cash Inflow 2/(1+i)2 + cash Inflow 3/(1+i)3 + …+ cash Inflow 20+face value/(1+i)20
    Bond Price = $40/(1+.08)1 + $40/(1+.08)2 +$40/(1+.08)3 + $40/(1+.08)4 +.... + ($40+$1000)/(1+.08)20
    = $37.03 + $34.29 + $31.77 + $29.41 + $27.22 + $25.22 + $23.35 + $21.62 + $20.01 + $18.53 + $17.16 + $15.88 + $14.71 + $13.61 + $12.61 + $11.67 + $10.81 + $10.01+ $9.26 + $223.17
    = $607.27

    In the case when the interest rate is 12%
    When the Coupon Rate is 10%, then the coupon payment or the cash inflow will be $ 1000 * 10% = $100

    Bond Price = cash Inflow 1/(1+i)1 + cash Inflow 2/(1+i)2 +(cash Inflow 3)/(1+i)3 +⋯+ cash Inflow 20+Face Value/(1+i)20
    Bond Price $100/(1+.12)1 + $100/(1+.12)2 +$100/(1+.12)3 + $100/(1+.12)4 +...+ $100+$1000/(1+.12)20
    = $89.28 + $79.74 + $71.22 + $63.57 + $56.75 + $50.68 + $45.24 + $40.40 + $36.06 + $32.20 + $28.75 + $25.67 + $22.92 + $20.46 + $18.27 + $16.31 + $14.56 + $13.00 + $11.61 + $114.03
    = $850.87

    When the Coupon Rate is 4%, then the coupon payment or the Cash inflow will be =$ 1000 * 4% = $40


    Bond Price = cash Inflow 1/(1+i)1 + cash Inflow 2/(1+i)2 + cash Inflow 3/(1+i)3 +…+ cash Inflow20+Face Value/(1+i)20
    Bond Price = $40/(1+.12)1 + $40/(1+.12)2 +$40/(1+.12)3 + $40/(1+.12)4 +.... + ($40+$1000)/(1+.12)20
    = $35.71 + $31.89 + $28.47 + $25.42 + $22.69 + $20.27 + $18.09 + $16.16 + $14.42 + $12.87 + $11.50 + $10.26 + $9.16 + $8.18 + $7.30 + $6.52 + $5.82 + $5.80 + $5.20 + $4.64 + $107.8
    = $403.6

    Relationship between Bond Price and Coupon Rate

    Yes, the price of the bond increases with an increase in the coupon rate. If we increase the coupon rate from 4% to 10% the price of the bond increases. There is a direct relationship between bond price and coupon rate.

    Relationship between Bond Price and Interest Rate or Discount Rate

    As the economic interest rate increase, there is a decrease in the price of the bonds. Similarly, as the economic interest rate decrease, there is an increase in the price of the bonds. There is an inverse relationship between bond price and discount rate (interest rate).


    admin
    Keymaster

    Types of packing

    i) Square Close Packing In two dimensions- the co-ordination number of each sphere is 4 In three dimensions- the co-ordination number of each sphere is 6

    ii) Cubic Close Packing ( ccp / fcc) In two dimensions- the co-ordination number of each sphere is 6 In three dimensions- the co-ordination number of each sphere is 12

    iii) Hexagonal Close packing In two dimensions- the co-ordination number of each sphere is 6 In three dimensions- the co-ordination number of each sphere is 12

    iv) Body centerd cubic unit cell In three dimensions- the co-ordination number of each sphere is 8

Viewing 10 posts - 1 through 10 (of 22 total)