Genetics is crucial to modern biology in that it provides unifying principles. It directly influences our lives and is fundamental to what and who we are. Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variations, and heredity in living organisms. A Gene is a particular DNA nucleotide sequence that encodes some individual traits. They are located at specific positions on chromosomes. Genes inside the nucleus of the cell are strung together in such a way that the sequence carries information which determines how living organisms inherit various features. Our modern theory of heredity indicates that offspring inherit genes located on chromosomes from their parents. These chromosomes segregate during meiosis in the germ cells and are passed into the gametes. Genes directly influence our appearance (examples- eye color, hair color, height and even skin pigments).
Genes may also influence our personality and intelligence. The study of many other biological disciplines, such as developmental discipline, ecology, evolutionary biology is supported by genetics. The genetic code presented in genes is universal, meaning that all organisms use nuclei acid as their genetic material, and all organisms encode genetic code in the same manner.
Our susceptibility to diseases and disorders is affected by our genetic makeup. Genetics plays an important role in researching and developing techniques to diagnose these heredity diseases. Nowadays, gene therapy is used to treat inherited diseases. This experimental technique involves changing a person’s gene to prevent or treat a disease.