Forums Science Assignment Help Biology What is cell organelles?

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    What is cell organelles?




    1. NUCLEUS- It is the control center and assigns all of the other organelles what to do and when to do it. DNA is present inside the nucleus and this material has all the instructions the cell needs for making proteins and the replication procedure. RNA, proteins and other molecules move out of the nucleus into the cell.
    2. CHROMOSOMES- Chromosomes are found in the nucleus. They are the DNA which is present in the condensed form. They carry the genetic information from the parent to the offspring. During the division phase the DNA condenses into chromosomes and then the duplication of the material takes place.
    3. RIBOSOMES- Ribosomes help in making proteins, they are small pieces of RNA found in the cytoplasm. Their function is to assemble proteins. They can be found in some other organelles like endoplasmic Reticulum.
    4. CYTOSKELETON- There is a network of tiny tubes within the cytoplasm; it is called as the cytoskeleton. The tube gives the cell its structure and also supports the organelles by holding them in place. They also work in transporting things between different parts of the cell.
    5. MICROTUBULES- Cytoskeleton is made from two different components: microtubules and microfilaments. Microtubules are made of protein and are hollow. They help in maintaining the shape of the cell. They form spindle fibers, during the replication process. These spindle fibers help in separating the chromosomes so that they can be divided.
    6. MICROFILAMENTS- Microfilaments are very thin threads and they are also made of protein. Like the microtubules, they help to maintain the shape of the cell.
    7. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM- They are of two types RER and SER. RER is known as rough Endoplasmic Reticulum. They are a collection of lipid membranes and help in movement of proteins. They are known as rough because the Ribosomes are attached to their surface and give them a rough appearance. The E.R. function is to transports these proteins to another organelle that will help in packaging and will ship them out. SER is known as Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum. They do not have any Ribosomes on its surface and hence, the name smooth is given. The lipid part of the cell membrane is assembled in SER.
    8. GOLGI APPARATUS- This organelle looks like stacks of pancakes. They help in packaging and sorting of proteins. The organelle is always around the cell membrane as it is so important to shipping things out of the cell.
    9. LYSOSOMES- This is the garbage house of the cell. This organelle has digestive enzymes that help in breaking down of items that are toxic to the cell. They help in breaking down the proteins, carbohydrates and lipids.
    10. MITOCHONDRIA- They is known as the powerhouse of the cell. They have a double membrane and the inner one is folded and thus increases the surface area where energy can be created. They create energy in the form of ATP.
    11. VACUOLES function is to store water, proteins, carbohydrates and salts. The vacuole is the way the amount of water coming and going is controlled by an organism that lives in water.
    12. VESICLES are smaller structures found in eukaryotic cells; their function is to store and move things between the organelles.
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