The presence of nucleus and organelles is the basic difference between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell.
Prokaryotic cell lacks nucleus and organelles. The word pro means “primitive” and the karyotic means “nucleus”. They are the most primitive cells and do not have a definite nucleus. Such a type of nucleus is known as a nucleoid. E.g. cyanobacteria. They have various structures inside the cell but they are not encapsulated by membranes.
These cells are generally smaller in size.
The plasma membrane may or may not be present
DNA is low in content and is naked. It is not found in association with histones.
These cell lack Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic Reticulum. But they have Ribosomes which are 70 S.
Introns are absent in DNA and RNA. Therefore, they do not require splicing.
They have chromatin bodies which are scattered inside the cytoplasm.
They divide through asexual methods of reproduction like binary fission and budding.
They have pilli and fimbriae for movement of the cell.
Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm.
Eukaryotic cells have both the nucleus and the cell organelles. These cells have been evolved from prokaryotes. They have a definite nucleus with nuclear material and DNA. These cells have structural organization and enhanced functional efficiency.
Organelles carry the important functions such as the building different molecules, breaking down sugars and removing the waste products. They effectively help to complete all the bodily functions.
The cells are larger in size.
The cells have a definitive plasma membrane which is selectively permeable in nature.
DNA is present in the nucleus and mitochondria. DNA is linear in shape and is found with histones.
Introns are common and hence, splicing is required before becoming operational.
Cell organelles like Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic Reticulum are present. They have Ribosomes but they are 80 S.
The chromatin bodies are enclosed by the nucleus.
They replicate by using sexual methods of reproduction.
The eukaryotic cell does not have pilli and fimbriae.