a) Gel filtration chromatography seprarates proteins, peptides, and oligonucleotides on the basis of size. Molecules move through a bed of porous beads, diffusing into the beads to greater or lesser degrees. Smaller molecules diffuse further into the pores of the beads and therefore move through the bed more slowly, while larger molecules enter less or not at all and thus move through the bed more quickly.
b) Ion Exchange Chromatography relies on charge-charge interactions between the proteins in your sample and the charges immobilized on the resin of your choice.
c) Affinity chromatography separates compounds based on the properties of chosen ligands with specific affinity to the molecule being selected for attachment to the solid matrices.
d) Paper chromatography separates molecules on the basis of their solubility in a particular solvent.