A) Taylor has been termed the father of scientific management. As the name implies, it was a scientific approach to managerial decision making. The name was intended to contrast his approach with the unscientific approaches that characterized traditional management practices at the time. Taylor’s major techniques included time and motion studies whereby the work task was divided into its constituent elements or motions and eliminating wasted motions so that the work would be done in the “one best way” as well as timing the remaining motions in order to arrive at an expected rate of production.
Taylor also pushed strongly for standardization in the design and use of tools. Tools and procedures were standardized in accordance with what designs were most effective in a given context. Taylor also advocated a worker be assigned a given quantity of work each day based on the results of time study. This was forerunner of modern day goal-setting.
Taylor claimed the primary motivation of an employee was to earn money. Therefore, the way to get an employee to work harder was to pay by the piece. This system, known as the piece rate system, was intended to provide individual employee productivity incentives.