five step problem solving model for O.B. Mod.

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    Discuss the five step problem solving model for O.B. Mod.


    The first step involves the identification of critical behavior. These behaviors are those which make a significant impact on performance — the ten percent of the behaviors that account for eighty percent of the performance. Critical behaviors may be identified by a person closest to the job, like the immediate supervisor or the job holder.

    The next step involves measuring the behaviors. A baseline frequency is obtained by counting the number of times the behavior occurs under existing conditions. Measurement also occurs after the intervention as well to note changes occurring because of the intervention. It is important that observational data be gathered as unobtrusively as possible.

    After identification and measurement of the behaviors, a functional analysis is performed (A-B-C). A is the antecedent cue, B is the behavior, and C is the contingent consequence. The functional analysis often reveals that there are many competing contingencies for behavior. Thus, it is important to identify only the contingent consequences.

    The intervention strategy strengthens and accelerates functional performance behaviors and/or weakens and decelerates dysfunctional behaviors. There are two major strategies:

    Positive reinforcement – represents a form of positive control of behavior; it is more effective and long lasting than negative control. This involves the application of a positive consequence following functional performance behavior.

    Punishment/positive reinforcement – It should be used to weaken and decelerate dysfunctional behaviors. it should never be used alone but always be combined with positive reinforcement. Reasons for this include the fact that punished behavior tends to be only temporarily suppressed, that it may have a disastrous side effect, and it is difficult for a supervisor to switch roles from punisher to positive reinforcer.

    The last step involves a systematic evaluation of performance improvement.

    There are four levels of evaluation:

    The reaction level refers to whether people administering and experiencing the approach like it. The second level is learning. This helps answer the question of whether people using the approach know why they are using it.

    The third level is aimed at behavioral change; that is, are the behaviors actually changing?

    The Fourth level is performance improvement, which is the overriding purpose for O.B. Mod. This step is important, since behavioral change may not necessarily reflect performance improvement.

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