Forums Assignment Help Briefly describe Translation.

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    Briefly describe Translation.




    Translation is the process of polymerizing amino acid to form a polypeptide chain.

    The triplet sequence of base pairs in mRNA defines the order and sequence of amino

    acids in a polypeptide chain.

    The process of translation involves three steps.

    (i) Initiation

    (ii) Elongation

    (iii) Termination

    During the initiation of the translation, tRNA gets charged when the amino acid binds

    to it using ATP. The start (initiation) codon (AUG) present on mRNA is recognized

    only by the charged tRNA. The ribosome acts as an actual site for the process of

    translation and contains two separate sites in a large subunit for the attachment of

    subsequent amino acids. The small subunit of ribosome binds to mRNA at the

    initiation codon (AUG) followed by the large subunit. Then, it initiates the process of

    translation. During the elongation process, the ribosome moves one codon

    downstream along with mRNA so as to leave the space for binding of another

    charged tRNA. The amino acid brought by tRNA gets linked with the previous amino

    acid through a peptide bond and this process continues resulting in the formation of

    a polypeptide chain. When the ribosome reaches one or more STOP codon (VAA,

    UAG, and UGA), the process of translation gets terminated. The polypeptide chain is

    released and the ribosomes get detached from mRNA.

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