Introduction to Metaprogramming Languages

A multi-paradigm programming language is a programming language that supports more than one programming paradigm. As Leda designer Timothy Budd puts it: "The idea of a multiparadigm language is to provide a framework in which programmers can work in a variety of styles, freely intermixing constructs from different paradigms." The design goal of such languages is to allow programmers to use the best tool for a job, admitting that no one paradigm solves all problems in the easiest or most efficient way.

Possibly the best example of a multi-paradigm language is ObjectiveCaml; an MlLanguage variant that supports object oriented and functional programming.

Features of Multiparadigm Programming languages

  • Classes - for basic object-oriented programming
  • Functions - for small-scale reuse of functionality
  • Tuples - for efficient aggregation and uniform treatment of multi-argument functions
  • Type parameters - for powerful and clean abstraction over types

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Ada is a modern programming language especially designed for the embedded systems where reliability and efficiency are essential. Ada is a highly flexible programming language which have strong type checking and features of code modularization. Ada programming language support the all Object Oriented Programming features and provide interface to other languages.


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Chuck programming language is a concurrent language.which is a audio programming language.It is used for real-time synthesis,composition and performane of audio. It can run on many platforms like Mac OS X,Linux,Microsoft Windows and IOS. It is readable and flexble to the programmers or there consideration of there raw performance. The chucks programming language have the ability to make changes in the live code like adding,removing and modifying code on the fly means while the program is running without stopping or restarting.


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D programming language is an objective-oriented imperative, multi-paradigm system programming language. D is a language with C like syntax and static typing. D allows writing large code fragments without redundantly specifying types, like dynamic languages do. D is a general purpose systems and applications programming language. It is a high level language, but retains the ability to write high performance code and interface directly with the operating system API’s and with hardware


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The Dylan programming langauge is a multi-paradigm language that includes support for functional and object-oriented programming, and is dynamic and reflective while providing a programming model designed to support efficient machine code generation, including fine-grained control over dynamic and static behaviours. Dylan is an object-oriented language. Programs create and use objects, and they use classes to categorize and abstract attributes of objects. Classes play a number of key roles:

  • They are data types, embodying subtype–super type relationships between objects.
  • They are the vehicle for abstraction of common attributes of objects.
  • They organize sharing of attributes: Subclasses inherit the attributes of super classes.
  • They are the principal basis for specializing behaviour of objects.

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ECMAScript is a scripting language. It is a foundation of JavaScripting and provide the enhanced feature to the existing java scripting language. JavaScript was submitted to ECMAInternational a body that facilitates the standardization of information and communication technology and consumer electronics, so that it can be formalized industry-wise. We can say that ECMAScripting is a JAVA Scripting language


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ActionScript is a object oriented scripting language. Like ECMAScript the Actionscript is similar to the java script. Actionscript provides the interactive functionalitry to the the web site. Actionscript is mostly used in the flash software developer can set and control the actions of the Flash objects. Actionscript provide the additional features to the animation with flash and to create advance interactive animations and applications for the users. Actionscript is used for the kids tutorials and games so that kids can understand the lessons more easily. This is used by many advertisement companies to create the advertisements banners with flash and small animations


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E4X (ECMAScript for XML) is a programming language adds the XML support to the JavaScript. E4X is standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-357 standard. E4X is implemented in SpiderMonkey and in Rhino. E4X provides the XML support which minimizes the complexity of the code and save the execution time of the program. There is ne type of XML which doest support by E4X is parsing XML declaration. E4X have a functionality in the JavaScript With special syntax, we can assign the value of a JavaScript variable to be the value of an E4X element.


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JavaScript is a scripting language and it is a light weight programming language. JavaScript is supported by the all modern browsers and used to make HTML page more attractive and dynamic. JavaScript is completely different to the Java programming language and easy to learn. It can enhance the dynamics and interactive features of your page by allowing you to perform calculations, check forms, write interactive games, add special effects, customize graphics selections, create security passwords and more. JavaScript was formalized in the ECMAScript language standard and is primarily used as part of a web browser. JavaScript is powerful enough to write the major application and insert that application in the webpage to increase the functionality and to make web page attractive.


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A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application program for organization and analysis of data in tabular form. It is developed as computerized simulations of paper accounting worksheets. The program of spreadsheet operates on data represented as cells of an array, organized in rows and columns. Each cell of spreadsheet is a model–view–controller element that can contain either text data or numeric, or the results of formulas that automatically calculate and display a value based on the contents of other cells.


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