Introduction to Little programming languages

One spin-off of the UnixDesignPhilosophy was the realization that it is easier to implement a task-specific language optimized for that task than it is to implement a general-purpose language optimized for all possible uses. The Little Language title was given by JonBentley in the Communications of the ACM.

Characteristics of Little Programming

  • May or may not be TuringComplete
  • Very efficient to execute (for example, sed scripts don't need to be tokenized; they already are.) both in terms of speed and memory (most cases) in their intended scope
  • Reasonably simple to express (RegularExpressions are simple enough to be concisely described on a single sheet 8 1/2"x11" paper, single spaced, 10 point font.)
  • Very powerful, within their scope, frequently to the logical extreme of their scope
  • Pathologically cryptic, requiring users to become experts before using them
  • Some little languages are not designed with efficiency in mind at all. Instead, it's intended to save the developer time and effort by allowing her to express her intentions at a much higher level of abstraction. This allows the developer's programs to be much shorter than equivalent programs in other languages

Assignment Help Net a Global presences

interactive programming

AWK is an interpreted programming language designed for searching files for lines that contain certain pattern. AWK release the new version which is known as NAWK or new AWK. AWK was in demand in 1970s and 1980s but in 1990s AWK was replaced by the pearl. AWK matches the lines by lines and when a line matches one of the pattern awk perform specific task on that line. Awk progeams are data-driven programming language in which you have to describe the data you wish to work with, and then what to do when you find it. AWK is different from procedural languages in procedural languages you have to describe in details the steps of the program but AWK programming is independent and easy for write and read.


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SQL(Structured Query Language)  is a database computer programming language designed for the retrieval and management of data in relational database. IBM first developed of SQL in 1970s. Also it is an ANSI/ISO standard. It has become a standard universal language used mostly in relational database management system(RDBMS). In a simple manner, SQL is a non-procedural, English-like language that processes data in groups of records rather than one record at a time. Few functions of SQL are:

  • store data
  • modify data
  • retrieve data
  • modify data
  • delete data
  • create tables and other database objects
  • delete data

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Tcsh is a scripting language and it is compatible with the Csh or C-shell scripting language. Tcsh scriptting language is written in C and it runs on the cross-patforms. The benefit of the Tcsh is it have a feature of the history it save the commands you written before so you can use that commands again without typing. It have command line editing so it is easy to use. It provide the feature of the auto completion of the file names and commands at the command line. To create the tcsh script you have to enter the pre-defined line in the first line of the script #!/bin/tcsh . The first line show that which scripting language is using to create a script.


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The C shell is a command processor which allows user to type commands. The c shall can read the commands from the file known as scripts. C shell consist of the control structure, shell command, expressions and variables. The first line of the script shows the language in which the script is written in Csh scripting the first line should be #!/bin/csh . The script file should be given execute permission with chmod command


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Ksh scripting language is also known as a Korn unix shell scripting language. Korn shell is a powerfull high level language programming language used to writing applications and this is easy and quick than the other high-level languages. The code size of the Ksh scripting language is larger than the other scripting languages. The first line of the Korn scripting is #!/bin/ksh . Ksh scripting language provide many features of Object oriented languages e.g conditions, itterations, variables, exceptions


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Bash is a shell programming language which means writing a code that shell executes. The Bash is a most common Linux shell. The name of the Bash comes from the “Bourne Again Shell”. There are many shell programming languages but people want to stick to Bash because it provide the platform interdependency and flexibility to the program. The features of the Bash programming keeps on enhance with time as some modern features add to shell e.g allows you to open more than one shall at a time and colored directory listing


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TCL stands for Tool Command Language Tcl is a scripting language and extending programming language. It is used for rapid prototyping, scripted application. It is used on enbeded systems platforms. Tcl can work on Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, as well as other platforms. It is an Open Source Programming language. The combination of TCL and Tcl GUI is called Tcl/Tk.


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