Introduction to Declarative programming Languages

Declarative programming Languages

Declarative programming is a way of specifying what a program should do, rather than specifying how to do it. Most computer languages are based on the steps needed to solve a problem, but some languages only indicate the essential characteristics of the problem and leave it to the computer to determine the best way to solve the problem. The former languages are said to support imperative programming whereas the latter support declarative programming.

Advantage of Declarative programming Languages

Advantage of Declarative programming Languages A declarative language is a type of programming language where you describe what goal a task has, but without writing the code to accomplish the task. HTML, SQL and Prolog are all examples of declarative languages. This language type has several advantages compared to other types, most notably imperative languages, where you actually write code that defines how a program should accomplish tasks.

Smaller Program

  • Programs made with a declarative language are often smaller than ones made with an imperative language. This is because you need to use less code to accomplish a goal.


  • Reusable Code
  • The code that defines how to accomplish a task is actually built into the programming language or in the computer itself.


  • No Scripts
  • Declarative programming languages do not need scripts to define how the program should relate one clause to another.


  • Ease of Use
  • Due to the simplistic nature of a declarative language, people new to programming can pick up the basic concepts of the paradigm quickly and write a program with ease.

ABSET is a declarative programming language based on sets. A declarative language is a nonprocedural programming language that allows the programmer to state the task to be accomplished without specifying the procedures needed to carry it out.


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Analytica is an example of array programming language. This language was developed for the reason to break the limitation of spread sheet. According to PC week: “Everything that’s wrong with common spreadsheet is fixed in Analytica”. Lumina the developer of Analytica define it as :- A visual tool for creating, analysing, and communicating decision model.


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LUSTRE, whose main application field is the programming of automatic control and signal processing systems. In this field, design istra- ditionally driven by means of two types of tools. First, specifications are often systems of equations (differential or finite difference equations, boolean equations, . . .). Second, implementations are often nets of operators connected with wires (switches, gates, analog diagrams). Such tools present several ad&tag- as a basis for a programming language.


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MetaPost is a programming language much like Knuth’s METAFONT except that it outputs vector graphics, either PostScript programs or SVG graphics, instead of bitmaps. Borrowed from METAFONT are the basic tools for creating and manipulating pictures. MetaPost is particularly well-suited to generating figures for technical documents where some aspects of a picture may be controlled by mathematical or geometrical constraints that are best expressed symbocially.


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SQL(Structured Query Language) is a database computer programming language designed for the retrieval and management of data in relational database. IBM first developed of SQL in 1970s. Also it is an ANSI/ISO standard. It has become a standard universal language used mostly in relational database management system(RDBMS).


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XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language, and is a style sheet language for XML documents. From a programmer point of view, XSLT is a programming language for processing XML data — that is, transforming XML documents.


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