MSA-600 Foundations of Research Methods in Administration
Chapter 1: Problem Definition
Renewable energy in simple terms is the energy that is derived from the use of sources of energy that are naturally replenished by the nature such as sunlight, rain, tides, wind, and geothermal energy (Boyle, 2004). According to REN21‘s 2017 report, 19.3% of human global energy consumption was contributed by renewable sources of energy. The other 80.7% of energy is derived out of non-renewable sources of energy which is not sustainable and over that has been adding up to pollution since ages. The use of renewable resources can be highly depended upon as it is free and in abundant quantity. The quality of such usage depends on human capability to capture it with advanced technology.
Green Technology is a relative new concept which is popularly referred to as Environmental technology, clean technology or sustainable technology. Here the term ‗Green‘ is used as a reference to nature and hence, Green Technology refers to the invention that includes the assessment of long and short term assessment of the environmental effects (Kazlauskas, 2003). This leads to conservation of the environment and reduction in various kinds of pollution. It is believed by industry experts that only a combination of economy, energy and environment can lead to sustainability. Sustainable Development is very important for the globe at this moment. Use of non-renewable resources leads to exhaustion of such natural resources like fossil fuels, restricting the future from using them. Sustainable Development is development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Lele, 1991). Use of clean technology will lead to sustainable development as well as have economic incentives like tax savings and waivers from the United States of America Government. As mentioned above currently the ratio of non-renewable sources to renewable sources is only 20:80 percent. At the beginning of transition, green energy shall be utilized alongside non-renewable sources in order to facilitate smooth flow of operations. Green technology has continued to gain dominance in the world because it has low greenhouse gas emissions. It minimizes environmental degradation. It promotes a healthy and improved environment leading to the conservation of energy and natural resources (Bhardwaj and N.) Green technology has continued to receive several tax incentives and waivers from the United States government for technological constructions of solar water heaters and small wind systems. One of the main concerns of green technology is in the production of renewable fuels. Renewable fuels refer to all sources of clean energy that can be replenished naturally. Since they are generated from natural sources like rain, ocean tides, wind or rain, they can are a dependable source of energy(Timmons et al.). As opposed to non-renewable fuels which are bound to be depleted, renewable energy is extracted from sources that are free and in abundant quantity.
The United States Department of Defense which comprises of the Air Force, Navy, Coast
Guards and the Army is one of the largest single consumers of energy in the world (T Edwards, 2001). The Department of Defense uses millions of litres of fuel per day. They have recently realized that renewable energy can improve military safety and stability in budget. At the same time, it can benefit the country by reducing pollution and ensuring no adverse changes in climate.
The United States Air Force is the major user of fuel energy in the country using 10% of the total nation‘s consumption (Lestz, 1992). In 2011, the Air Force planned to certify its entire fleet on coal-to-liquid synthetic fuel and US-produced synthetic blends like blends of biofuel called Hydro-treated Renewable Jet (Lestz, 1992). The four areas of their focus include improvement in resiliency i.e., pointing out weaknesses in current procedures, reduction in demand which will increase system efficiency, assures reliable supply channels and Foster an energy awareness culture through training in communication. The department of defense spent billions of dollars annually, with tactical platforms, generations, and weapons constituting 90 percent of the military‘s petroleum fuel requirement. The nation‘s National security, force projection, operational reach, and geopolitics complicate efforts to curb America‘s unquenchable fuel demand and the formulation of effective national, defense and military energy strategies. Given the scale of consumption, the Air Force and Navy have focused on reducing energy demands in their strategies to meet more substantial defense and national energy objectives—with particular focus in the area of aviation fuel.
The United States Army which operates on land finds energy to be a critical resource. Renewable fuel may enable the Army to address issues relating to combat operational reach and sustainment of US power projection. It is inevitable for the Army men to consider fuel issues with respect to logistics, if they plan on continuous momentum on the war field. They have given way to various initiatives that focus on sustainability of energy over the long term (T Edwards, 2001). This has an economical aspect attached to it, use of renewable resources will help keeping operating costs low. This entire initiative goes with the name ‗Net Zero Initiative‘. Too much cut on budget might lead to efficiency and compromised national
The United States Navy on the other hand is popularly perceived to be the least consumer of non-renewable energy resources, but to the contrary it consumes around 33% of the total
Defense energy (Schultz, 2011). The Marines‘ major use of fuel is for their huge ships and its conveyance. There are three types of fuels: Heavy fuel oil (HFO), Low Sulphur Fuel Oil (LSFO) and diesel oil. All of them have different rules and protocols to follow. In some seas and specific waters, only LSFO is allowed to be burnt. Such areas are called Sulphur Emission Controlled Areas (SECA). All these fuels result in depletion of fossil fuels as well as contribute heavily to pollution. They are now extremely dedicated towards energy efficiency, as they believe it will reduce time of their personnel, effort which goes into it and reduction of overall costs. Decrease in dependency on fossil fuels will ultimately create a more sustainable model for the military as a whole. Their goals include Alternative Energy usage, Sail Green Fleet, Alternative Energy, Reduction in the amount of petroleum consumption and Acquisition of energy efficient equipment (Doerry, 2013). The United States Department of Defense consumes the most significant amount of the country's energy for powering heavy combat machinery. The Department's Air force takes 52% of fuel consumption followed by the navy at 33%, the army 7%, and other military activities at 1%.
The nation‘s defense is highly dependent on petroleum products and electricity for its energy requirements. The usage of these vast amounts of petroleum products has led to widespread debate on the amount of resultant pollution caused by the Department of Defense alone
(Environmental and Energy Study Institute). There is a widespread emphasis from the United States military for the need to curb climate change which is considered a threat to the stability of vulnerable countries. The Department of Defense is pushing for the adoption of renewable sources of energy as a shield from the vulnerability of oil prices (Gardner 2).
Renewable fuel can enable the army to take care of a long-standing combat issue managing combat operational reach and sustainment of US power projection. Maneuver commanders understand sustainment as the warfighting function capacity that assists them to expand their operational reach in the combat zone. Sustainment enables the commander to continue his force and unite gains all through every one of the phases of the scope of military tasks. There are various precedents where military commanders neglected to plan for logistics rendered them powerlessness to continue momentum on the battlefield. As indicated by Napoleon, wars are won in all-out attack mode. To keep up the cutting edge military on the offense, it requires fuel. It requires a great deal of fuel. Therefore, one can conclude that the military depends on fuel. That is true. When we look at the military's reliance on fuel, we accompany some robust figures in accounts, assets, and lives. The military is right now the nation's most significant fuel consumer. The cost we pay for it keep on expanding each day. On the off chance that this proceeds, it might have some extremely adverse effect on our national security (Boyle, 2004).
How can the Army‘s green energy policy in specific save lives and money for the nation? This has been a centre for debates in the past by many influential people in the country. There is a widespread emphasis from the United States Military for the need to curb climate change which is considered a threat to the stability of vulnerable countries. There are concerns over the ability to access renewable fuel, especially during times of war. The push for alternative energy was signed by President Bush in 2007, requiring the electrification of the military by renewable energy to a tune of 25%.
Recent Advancements by the United States Army include:
- Development of the Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery Program which converts
waste to fuel.
- Use of Portable cells and hybrid-electric Vehicles in order to decrease petroleum consumption.
- Implementation of photovoltaic energy, water purification technology and efficient heating and cooling systems.
- Developed 120,000 solar based roofs for housing
- Replacement of lithium-ion batteries with light weight fuel cells which produce more efficient power output and stay for a longer duration.
- Usage of solar energy to run communication devices, night-vision goggles and power
GPS machines (Berdikeeva, 2017)
Use of lighter fuel resources will increase the efficiency of soldiers as they now get to carry lighter weights and can move at a faster pace which in turn results in less chances of exposure to the enemy. The army is replacing lithium-ion batteries with fuel cells. These cells are 50% lighter than the battery weight that soldiers carry and produce more efficient power output for a longer time. Solar panels have been used in Afghanistan by marines since 2009 to power batteries of communication devices, run night-vision goggles and power GPS machines. These solar panels have replaced generators which are loud and often expose soldiers to the enemy (Berdikeeva 2).The essence of having a change to green technology fuels is for saving the lives of soldiers, especially during war. The reduction of the amount of energy weight carried by a soldier especially during a mission can increase his or her chances of survival. Soldiers with substantial amounts of weight from different forms of energy they have to use will move at a slower pace and be exposed to the enemy. On the other hand, petroleum tankers are highly inflammable and have always been a target for the enemies in the past (Amy, 2011). More than 1,000 deaths of soldiers have been accounted for in the past due to fuel-related attacks in Iraq and Afghanistan. These vehicles usually carry highly inflammable fuel in for the purpose running generators in order to provide for electricity and airconditioning at the military camps. The essence of having a change to green technology fuels is for saving the lives of soldiers, especially during war. The reduction of the amount of energy weight carried by a soldier especially during a mission can increase his or her chances of survival. Soldiers with substantial amounts of weight from different forms of energy they have to use will move at a slower pace and be exposed to the enemy. The rolling out of the Net Zero solutions package by the United States military has provided a central power for all the electronics of a soldier (Westervelt 1). Transition to dependence on solar and other renewable sources of energy will reduce such exposure to threats and will ultimately reduce soldier casualties. Solar panels are light weight as compared to heavy petrol tankers which will reduce the burden of carrying them and transporting for longer distances. (Army
Environmental Policy Institute).
It has been observed that fuel management is a necessary task for every operational commander especially for wars which happen outside the home territory. Fuel procurement, fuel logistics and fuel consumption are among the top priority issues for the U.S. Army. The United States of America has been supporting two wars logistically, Iraq and Afghanistan. It is of utmost importance for them to be properly equipped with adequate amount of fuel to sustain for the entire war period. Such tremendous amounts of fuel costs a lot and also are burdensome to transport. They also possess a treat to the soldiers because of their inflammable characteristics. Enemies target blasting these carriages which costs the lives of soldiers, marines and civilian contractors.
Primary Research Question:
How can the Department of Defense especially the United States Army use renewable energy to save lives on the battlefield?
Subsidiary Research Question:
- Would the implementation of renewable energy and solar technology for tactical generators show a significant reduction in fuel consumption?
- What will be the effect of energy efficient technology on logistics?
- What are the risks for investing in renewable energy technology on the operational force?
Research Audience and Rational:
For a global military power like the U.S. Army, there is a need to always be cautious and ready especially against nations like China, Russia, Iraq and North Korea. These nations, specifically large ones like China have huge economic influence on the U.S. Fuel currently used being non-renewable is a scarce resource. Countries with increasing military bases are all competing for the same resources making its availability unreliable. It also has a harmful effect on the environment due to pollution. Hence, it is safe to assume that incorporating a sustainable renewable source of fuel like solar will mitigate significant logistical concerns for geographical combatant commanders.
This paper focuses on the challenges faced by the U.S. Department of Defense especially the land components to support soldiers logistically at times of war. The study involves analysing the basic current U.S. Army policies, goals and objectives regarding the same. It focuses on alternative energy sources to solve the problems. Introduction of renewable energy and its impact would be evaluated in all fields.
Hence, the scope is limited to the study of tactical fuel for ground equipment diversification through emerging technology. U.S. Army‘s policies and plans to use renewable fuels will also be identified. A comparative analysis of Air Force and Naval with the Army will be produced to recognize the similarities, differences, potential solutions, and military implications.
This study focuses on renewable energy strategies as a solution to operational and tactical issues. Specific attention will be given on convoy operations and particularly in Iraq during the surge period. While other services, agencies, weapon systems are identified in the paper, their particular will not be assessed for the study.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
This section of the paper provides an understanding of the context of the study advocating the research focus. Extensive research has been made in the past decade regarding the crucial need for transition of U.S. Department of Defense fuel sources to renewable means. Most of the research focused on the reasons for such a need and the policy initiatives that the department has planned on implementing. Especially in the last five years many researchers have focused on identifying alternative fuels for military applications. Most of the studies were conducted by military related individuals like ex-marines or retired soldiers and officers. Civilians on the other hand focused more on bringing into attention the need for general concept of sustainability into the federal government agencies. Very little attention was given to changes to convoy doctrines, equipment structure and personnel. These energy consumption have created the need for the Department of Defense to look for the new initiatives to find the best way to achieve its operational efficiency while staying in the budget efficiency as well. For this, Department of Defense has seized the deployment of the three gigawatts of renewable energy to back the military power option by next decade. The Department of Defense has requisitioned the deployment of 3 gigawatts (GW) of renewable energy to military power facilities by 2025. These projects are aimed to cover around onefourth of the energy resources comes from them. Actualizing choices has developed from expanding energy dispersion costs, foreign oil reliance, the risk of energy supply interruptions and the requirement for progressively secure and clean energy age and dissemination (Environmental and Energy Study Institute).
Excessive research has been done from the U.S. perspective with respect to war challenges which included logistics related challenges. But very negligible amount of information is available regarding conditions at Iraq. Since the research paper shows specific attention to Iraq, gathering of information to analyse will be difficult. According to the Operational Energy Strategies released by the Department, the government is perceived to be very much involved in the adaptation of green fuels by many researchers. The cost of combat in human lives and finances can change the overall success of the operation regardless of success and gains if costs are too high. In the fiscal year of 2015, the overall military spending was approx. $598bn which is 54 percent of the federal spending. This figure used to cover the different aspects of the Department of Defense like war expenses, nuclear weapons expenses, and other interlinked activities across the defense departments. Thus to achieve the objectives of the operational military objective, the focal point remains the same; energy. DoD relies heavily on the mission-oriented energy resources as it has been the largest consumer of the energy in the country (Friedman).
The presence of such extensive research papers is mainly due to the partial requirements of completion of the master‘s program of ‗Military Art and Science‘ at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Ambitious students of the program put in enormous amount of effort into the study. Studies in the recent past have shown inclination towards greening the mixture of economy and environment.
The Department of Defense initiatives with specific reference to the U.S. Army focus on the utilization of preservation and renewable fuel systems for the purpose of national security and sustainability (Northern, 2009). Convoy security is another issue which needs to be taken care of. (Thompson, 2012) Vouches that convoys are more vulnerable to attack than ground maneuver forces and should be planned and executed as a combat operation. Between November 2001 and September 2010, two major United States operations were held namely Operation Enduring Freedom and Iraq Freedom were witnessed. Around 17% of the total soldier force were killed due to inefficiency in Logistics management (Thompson, 2012).
The Army as an essential branch of the Military uses less energy than the other branches of the Military such as the Navy and the Air Force. This is due to its reliance on the other two for transportation and mobility needs (Lestz, 1992). The consumption of energy for army operation is centered on its operation installations. This consumption includes petroleum products which are consumed on the average of 21bn barrels per annum. The recent convergence of DoD towards green energy has favoured the army initiatives(Environmental and Energy Study Institute). The army energy security implementation strategy aims to achieve zero energy goals by 2020. This initiative requires the five installations and deployment of the 1 gigawatt of renewable energy by next decade.
According to (Army Research Lab Adelphi MD, 2006), the requirement for power and energy in a rapidly modernized, highly digital and network-centric Army is growing exponentially. Along with this, the ability to provide for this growth depends on imposing logistic penalties like fuel consumption, reliability, size and weight and environmental issues. The military's passion for renewable power has just impacts affected energy contractors, producing hundreds of millions in contracts for solar companies and reducing fuel consumption by the world's largest single petroleum buyer. The military almost doubled renewable power age somewhere in the range of 2011 and 2015, to 10,534 billion British warm units, or enough to power about 286,000 average U.S. homes, as per DoD report
(Environmental and Energy Study Institute).
The subject of energy conservation is now deeply entrenched in building design and operation of the U.S Army. Their focus is more on energy saving than reduction in the quantity of energy losses (Kim Bawden, 2011). It is believed that the primary issues affecting the energy options of U.S Army are those of availability (due to global competition for the same resources), affordability, sustainability, and security. Many other world energy situations are analysed with respect to Army utilization of energy (Engineer Research and Development Center Champaign IL Construction Enginnering Research lab, 2005).
Over the past decade, the U.S. Department of Defense has spent billions of dollars on the research, development, testing and certification of alternative green fuels that can substitute fossil fuel derived fuel used by the Navy and Marine Corps system. Extensive research has been done on the related policies, management strategies and technical issues with respect to incorporating a clean system (Bibber, 2011). The Secretary of the Navy destinations incorporates expanding energy security and improving war fighter capacities through the execution of a sustainable power source. In FY 2013, concerning its 2003 gauge, the Navy and Marine Corps diminished their consolidated energy power by 19.3 percent. The Navy has a far-reaching objective of creating 1 GW of the sustainable power source by 2020—five years sooner than the Army. The Navy's energy objectives include energy effective securing, a decrease of oil use, generation of 50 percent clean energy establishments on shore, and the cruising of the Great Green Fleet. The improvement and organization of the Great Green Fleet will incorporate more energy proficient boats and flying machine notwithstanding using elective energy, prevalently atomic power (Army Research Lab Adelphi MD, 2006). In 2012, the Navy expertly finished one between time objectives by showing the abilities of the Great Green Fleet amid the world's biggest vast sea, the Rim of the Pacific Exercise. Before 2013, the Navy finished its biggest sunlight based undertaking to date, a 14 MW photograph voltaic power framework at the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake in California (Environmental and Energy Study Institute). This establishment is required to spare the Navy more than $13 million throughout the following 20 years and will create enough clean energy to supply 33% of the office's yearly power request (Rosenthal).
Research in the Ocean Thermal energy conversion, wave energy, offshore wind energy and tidal energy has led to ambitious and promising technologies and commercial deployment of resources in the Navy. These will help protect the ocean from oil spills exploitation and at the same time alleviate the global climate change threat. If environmental regulations are rightly followed, this will not adversely impact the ocean life at all (Robin Pelc, 2002).
The U.S. Navy has introduced hybrid vessels called the U.S.S. Makin Island, which can speed up to 10 knots and runs on electricity instead of non-renewable fuels such as petrol. The Secretary of the Navy announced for expanding energy security and improving war fighter capacities through the execution of a sustainable power source. This shift resulted in greater efficiency that approximately conserved 900,000 gallons of fuel on its first voyage from Mississippi to San Diego. The Energy Systems Technology and Evaluation Program (ESTEP) that has begun in FY13 is uniting key players amid a five-year time frame to direct accurate tests on cutting-edge energy advances at Navy and Marine Corps establishments. ESTEP incorporates members from ONR; NPS; Naval Facilities Engineering Command; Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command; and associations with industry. The focal point of the program will be principally on creative business energy advancements got from openshowcase sources, including private companies. The ONR exertion fits into the ambitious five energy targets declared by Secretary of the Navy at the Naval Energy Forum in 2009.
The Department of the Navy established that all new constructions of buildings by the United
States Navy and the United States Marine Corps shall have a requirement to obtain a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver Certification from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). The aim of this certification is to reduce energy consumption by 30% (Menassa, 2012).
Air Force Initiatives:
(Rosenthal, 2010) Claims that The United States Air Force Department plans to have an entire fleet of jets certified to fly on biofuels in the near future. They have already implemented and testes flights using a 50-50 mix of plant-based biofuel and jet fuel. Such biofuels can be produced from every corner of the globe wherever plants and green algae is available.
The use of petroleum fuels as an energy source for Air Force aviation flights and jets is not sustainable and contributes heavily to the release of greenhouse gasses. Such fuels prices also are extremely dynamic in nature susceptible to volatile changes day by day. The best alternate fuel resource according to this research is Biomass. The features for such a fuel shall be sustainable, easy to extract and affordable (Kandaramath, 2015).
Execution of the Air Force Energy Strategic Plan incorporates four needs: enhance versatility, lessen request, guarantee supply and encourage a vitality mindfulness culture. Like the Army and Navy, the Air Force has an objective of creating 1 GW of sustainable power source; however, needs this objective to help nearby limit was by 2016. The Air Force is likewise pushing toward guaranteeing every single new building are intended to accomplish zero-net-vitality by 2030, starting in 2020. In FY 2013, the Air Force had around 261 sustainable power source ventures, including sunlight based and squander to-vitality utilizing landfill gas and wind vitality. Cape Cod, Air Force Station, is the main Air Force net-zero establishment, utilizing wind control turbines on location(Environmental and Energy Study Institute)
An alternative fuel produced from Hydroproccessed Esters and fatty Acids (HEFA) is expected to be the best substitute for petroleum based jet fuel at the United States Air Force bases. Such a fuel can be extracted from soybean, oilseeds, etc. In order to encourage such a production of raw materials, it is inevitable for the government of the United States to extend subsidies and financial support to the biofuel producers. This will also ensure that the entire cost of consumption of fuel would come down hence covering for the subsidies that the federal government plans on extending (Niven Winchester, 2013).
Execution of the Air Force Energy Strategic Plan incorporates four needs: enhancing versatility, reduction in requests, guarantee supply and encourage a vitality of mindfulness culture. The Air Force is also seen having objectives of creating sustainable power sources like the Army and the Navy. Some of these initiatives include creating sunlight, wind and landfill based sources of energy. In support of congressional requirement, RAND developed a new methodology to assess the impact of fossil fuel and the process to logistically move it to the front line have on combat effectiveness by linking fuel consumption modelling and constructive combat modelling and simulation. The methodology assesses the impact of new military systems focusing on alternative on the larger operating unit (i.e., battalions and brigades), specifically, the impact of fuel on logistics and the subsequent implications for the combat effectiveness of military units during combat operations. (Endy M. Daehner, John Matsumura, Thomas J. Herbert, Jeremy R. Kurz, and Keith Walters).
Impacts of Green Energy:
The Department of Defense components, the Army, Navy, Marine Corps and the Air Force have all announced a clear cooperation towards being the early users of green energy sources in the country. Each of them have established specific programs aiming reduction of dependence on the usage of non-renewable sources of energy like petroleum based products in tactical weapon systems and supporting equipment (Bibber, 2011).
Using less oil is a successful strategy for the Military. Using fuel-efficient technologies, cleaner fuels (those made from cellulosic biofuels) and electric vehicles can lead to reduction in oil usage to halve the present consumption rate. This ultimately will lead to creation of jobs, reduction of costs and curbing of pollution (Fort, 2019).
Between 2010 and 2012, Department of Defense renewable projects have increased by 43 percent and are anticipated to continue to increase for the next 20 years exponentially. Its implementation of alternative energy and supporting infrastructure is one area where the department is utilizing industry to promote research and thus fortifying energy security across the nation (Booth et al.; Byrne et al.; Rosenthal).
The number of military renewable energy projects nearly tripled to 1390 between 2011 and 2015, department data showed, with a number of utilities and solar companies benefitting. Dependence on such projects is also encouraged due to the various advantages it provides like, independence source of power at times of natural disaster or attack or cyber-attack (Gardner, 2017).The following section explores and focuses on the applications of green energy concerning military field activities. It has been an observation that the soldier lives can be saved by green energy on the battlefield as there has been a great effort made by soldiers to save the fuels coveys.
For any military action, any mismanagement or loophole in planning to manage the resource can lead to fatal collapse — moreover, these transportation services used in operations to lead it for its objectives. Operation Restore provides the example of its importance, for the armed coveys, when they moved the tens of thousands of human support. Also, it provided the base support such as coalition support to armed forces during the operation. These base support to the armed coveys can be affected if a network of roads and energy plans lags for the worst scenarios. The mismanagement in the maintenance of Somali road network brought challenges to all armed units during the Operation Restore (Lawrence, 2014).
Unclean water, contaminated air, and poor sanitation can cause weakening shorter-term sickness and can likewise now and again because longer-term medical issues, for example, expanded mortal growth dangers. Other hazard factors incorporate uncontrolled creepy crawly or creature vectors and heritage contamination from prior industrial pollution. Dangerous substances are moreover a risk to troops, regardless of whether through incidental presentation or intentional activity by foes. Activities that require less fuel, water, and different assets and deliver less waste will decrease the coordination‘s weight and free up coordination‘s resources for other critical assignments. At the point when nature is not appropriately overseen at base camps, it can put outstanding and superfluous requests on coordination‘s frameworks that ought to be focused on different sorts of help. Environmental bungle can cause both short and long haul issues with host countries in and around districts of contention. Unlawful dumping by temporary workers has caused strategic issues in a few late activities, as has sullying left by U.S. powers (T Edwards, 2001).
The U.S. military forces headquarters – The Pentagon targets to meet 25 percent of its energy demands from renewable sources of energy by 2025 in order to encourage the rest of the country to shift to such usage of fuel (Reardon, 2012).
Army possibility activities, as late encounters in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans illustrate. By viably overseeing environmental issues amid organizations, Army units and officers can increase strategic and vital advantages that can reach out from combat into the post-struggle period of tasks. Because environmental issues present dangers to the well-being, security, and security of troops, they can impact combat tasks. Be that as it may, the impact of environmental issues goes well past that. In many possibilities in recent decades, U.S. powers have stayed in the venue for any longer than foreseen, getting profoundly engaged with such non-combat exercises as adjustment, reproduction, and country building. Environmental issues turn out to be considerably progressively essential amid such extended commitment, not just because of the impact they have on everyday tasks at base camps, yet besides because of the enormous job they can play in accomplishing U.S. national goals. To be sure, the more extended the mission and progressively broadened the post-struggle tasks, the more critical the environmental issues will in general move toward becoming, and the more they can influence mission results and activity costs. In any case, because they contend with other warfighting worries for consideration, venture, and labour, environmental contemplations once in a while get high need in possibility tasks. The creators prescribe that Army units and officers better offset them with different prerequisites. The report takes a gander at the numerous ways that issues identified with the earth can influence combat and post-strife activities. It presents zones for development and spreads out a far-reaching and precise methodology the Army could take to deal with the earth adequately amid possibilities (Lestz, 1992).
Since the 9/11 incident, there has been a lot of changes in the way military operates. There has been much debate on the paradigm shift for the supply of fuels and other energy resources. Outsiders primarily finance sustainable power source projects in the U.S. and presumably will not be influenced by the administration shut down that is lingered as numerous as eight million government employees. Members of the military will continue to get paid during the shutdown. The remarks from Kidd and military colleagues illuminate the Army's push to wind up a net zero power user, producing as much power as it consumes around the world. The Army's objective is to install 1 gigawatt of an inexhaustible limit by 2025 in the U.S. also, to reduce non-strategic fuel consumption by 30 percent by 2020 from 2005 levels. A gigawatt is about the same limit as another nuclear reactor has.
The development of the Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery Program which converts waste to fuel, portable cells, and hybrid-electric vehicles are programs meant to decrease nontactical petroleum use. In recent times, the Navy has developed and implemented photovoltaic energy, water purification technology, and efficient heating and cooling systems. Through a solar program initiated by the Department of Defense, more than 120,000 roofs of base housing were installed with 300 Mega Watts between 2007 and 2015. Renewable energy can be used to develop unmanned aerial and undersea vehicles with hydrogen fuel cells for military operations. These fuel cells are notably lightweight and reliable where the vehicles need to navigate risky and difficult places for long hours.
Threats associated with fossil fuels and its management:
Analysis of the previous attacks in Afghanistan have led to the observations that for every 24 fuel convoys sent, one soldier or civilian engaged in fuel transport is killed. In Rawalpindi, Pakistan, oil tankers carrying fuel for American troops in Afghanistan were burnt. The mobility of fossil fuels into the country brings costs as well as risk for the nation (Rosenthal, 2010). Some advancements to curb this threat were put in motion like the use of fire-resistant diesel fuel that self-extinguishes when ignited by an explosive projectile. In terms of Chemistry, this fuel was a stable mixture of diesel, 10 percent of water and, an emulsifier.
Though it suffered from both technical and logistical limitations, this didn‘t stop the Army FRF program from putting their efforts into developing a new fuel that reduces and eliminates both the initial mist fireball and residual pool burning (Southwest Research Inst
San Antonio TX Tardec Fuels and Lubricants research Facility , 2009).
Increasing competition for the world‘s oil supplies is also a threat for the U.S Military forces. Military giants like the Russia, China and the Mid-east countries all have high dependency on fossil based fuels and hence, it being a scarce resource possess availability threat. This in turn makes the price of such fuels very volatile and often leads to over spending of budgeted expenditure of the Department of Defense. Being extremely dependent on oil rich countries makes the federal government vulnerable to import and export treaties manipulation (Roege, 2011). The Office of Secretary of Defense expressed its concerns that an unbudgeted fuel requirement may negatively impact its operation and hence adversely affect its readiness (refers to the ability to perform tasks and missions in time for emergent contingencies). Such changes of prices affects the entire program, the budgeted figures, acquisition plans and distribution channels (Frazier, 2014).
President Dwight D. Eisenhower warned that ―the problem in Defense is how far you can go without destroying from within what you are trying to defend from without‖. Wars and
Battles entails large-scale environmental devastation as in Vietnam, Afghanistan, Central America and the Gulf countries. The production, testing and T of conventional, chemical, nuclear and biological ammunition creates enormous amounts of lethal and radioactive substances that pollutes soil, air and water. An estimation of the expense and vitality required to actualize such a change has been likewise made. The investigation portrays the general structure of the world's transportation framework inside each vital transporter subarea, that is, cars, ships, flying, cargo, and urban transport, etc. The military requirement of land collides with other needs majorly like agriculture, housing, recreation, grazing and wildlife protection hence, restricting public access (tripathi, 1992).
Summary of the Literature:
The enormous literature on the topic is wide-spread and hence needs to be analysed as a whole first and then connect impact of green fuels with Army initiatives and assess its relationship. The general initiatives of the Department of Defense gives an initial understanding of the policies and protocols of the organization which shall useful in interpreting the United States Army developments in this field. According to NREL, from the data provided by MCAS Miramar of the year 2008, approx. One hundred seventy-six thousand gallons of fuel had been used for transportation. The high dependence of these transportation facilities on fossil fuels has expensed a lot to the army for its operation, creating a need for an alternative to managing the use of resources. Along these lines, it appears to be shrewd to defend and rebuild the transportation framework towards making immediate and savvy utilization of power delivered from renewable. To use fossil fuel as the baseline for energy conversion, it is critical to analyze the prior use of renewable fuels that have been used and generated in fleet vehicles. The biodiesel used is a blend of 20% biodiesel and 80% regular diesel. Currently, about 925 MBtu of fuel are already coming from renewable sources. The baseline source Btu for the fleet from non-renewable sources 23,400 MBtu.
Gilbert and Perl recognize a lot of progressive changes to be actualized in the present transport framework in seeking after change procedures that can move more individuals and cargo without oil before it turns out to be past the point where it is possible to maintain a strategic distance from a worldwide vitality emergency. These creators presumably underestimate the job that insightful utilization of non-renewable energy sources could have in-vehicle progress. In any case, they appropriately call attention to the need to cultivate a vehicle insurgency that refashions the present tight linkages among versatility and oil-based vitality sources. The threats faced by the militants due to use of fossil based fuels will possess as challenges for which solutions are to be found in this research paper. As underscored by Swenson, an immediate substitution of the present armada of inside ignition motors with a similarly vast vehicle armada with electric engines would keep up existing conditions in current urban areas, which are packed with autos and perilous for people on foot. In the
MEDEAS venture ("Modelling the Renewable Energy Transition in Europe" (Gilbert and Pearl), European Union's Horizon 2020 research and advancement program, concede understanding of the Framework Program for Research and Innovation actions, the creators have considered distinctive situations for Energy framework improvement under natural and financial requirements, with the goal to control European approach toward a low-carbon economy. A portion of the first advances as of now demonstrated or in a model stage which could be utilized to substitute the present non-renewable energy source based transport. We distinguish the vehicle modes that are progressively perfect with material and vitality requirements.
Chapter 3Research Methodology
Extensive literature exists on alternative fuels for use in the United States of America; however the current collection of texts largely fails to address the challenges of the United States Armed Forces to shift to green energy. To answer the research questions posed in chapter 1, this study incorporates a qualitative analysis approach. Quantitative data of a minimum scale exists that forms the basis of the research. Most of the research is subjective in nature due to judgemental interpretation of various variables. This research is geographically restricted to the United States of America and does not hold good to other countries and their militaries.
The study starts with analysing the limitations of using non-renewable fuel sources as used in the present. The centrepiece of this paper focuses on whether use of renewable energy sources assist in saving lives of the Army officials on the battlefield. The study then goes on to evaluate the past and current federal government and the Department of Armed Forces‘ initiatives to facilitate such a transition from crude-oil based fuels to greener and cleaner fuels. The research paper concludes with fact-driven recommendations in order to bring to light the growing need of using alternative sources of fuel like solar energy, etc.
Data to be collected:
The Primary research question – ―How can the Department of Defense especially the United
States Army use renewable energy to save lives on the battlefield?‖ .Here the data to be collected includes current performance of United States Army in the battlefield using nonrenewable sources of energy like Petrol, alternative renewable fuels available to replace currently used fuel and projected increase in performance of the Army due to use of new energy sources.
The first sub-question – ―Would the implementation of renewable energy and solar technology for tactical generators show a significant reduction in fuel consumption?‖ .The data to be collected here includes current fuel consumption by the United States Army during war and projected fuel consumption rates after part of the energy demand is met by solar and other technology.
The second sub-question – ―What will be the effect of energy efficient technology be on logistics?‖ The data needed to be gathered here involves information about what technology constitutes as energy efficient technology, current limitations in Army logistics and how they can be overcome using newer and cleaner technologies.
The final sub-question – ―what are the risks for investing in renewable energy technology on
Operational force‖ The data required to answer this question includes advantages of existing fossil fuel based technology on Army personnel efficiency on the battlefield and the risks associated with replacing such technology with renewable fuel based ones.
The data used for the purpose of research in this project is entirely based on Secondary Data sources. It is collected from reliable previous studies, historical factual information, professional journals, reports of governmental agencies and information from private online databases. A combination of data from governmental and non-governmental agencies such as the School of Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Staff College, U.S. Army War College, RAND Cooperation and the various military branches provide the background and cost parameters for the cost associated with the technologies.
To conduct proper analysis of the questions and to generate useful data, the study will focus on fuel used in the war in Iraq during the height of the conflict. The focus will be limited to a specific theatre of operation, and a specific timeline. The research variables will enable the study to answer the primary focus question on renewable fuel implementation and its potential to save lives on the battlefield. The research will analyse the amount of fuel burnt during the surge period in Iraq along with the United States Army Environmental Policy Institute Report and the average fuel consumed during the time.
Since the entire paper is a descriptive analysis of the ways in which renewable sources help save lives during war, the paper can lead to different interpretations by different research consumers. The research also suffers the limitations of using secondary data like inaccuracy, data not being suitable in the current context, incomplete data and obsolete or out of date information.
Chapter 4Data Analysis
The data collected as per requirements of the research questions in analysed and presented both in the form of text and visual formats. The associated data is converted into meaningful information using basic tabulation techniques and graphical representation. Different data variables are gathered from different sources and are merged into a common platform in order to correlate and test whether there is any sort of relationship that exists among them.
Data Presentation and Analysis with respect to primary questions’ requirements:
The primary question demands to analyse the present performance of the United States Army at times of war. The following analysis shows the reasons for loss of personnel during Operation Iraqi Freedom (petrol based fuel was used for logistics during this time): (John B
Source: (John B Holcomb, 2011)
The candidate Alternative fuels for Army use falls basically under two categories:
- Fuels produced via a method called Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. It can be applied on a number of carbonaceous feedstock like natural gas, coal and biomass. It begins with converting the feedstock material into CO (carbon Monoxide) and H (Hydrogen). This combination is next converted into a liquid hydrocarbon through a process called FT synthesis. These liquids can be further processed into fuels. The advantages of using these include low aromatic content, zero sulphur levels, reduction sulphur oxides and other pollutant emissions and low cost when produced from coal.
- Fuels produced by processing vegetable oil and animal fats with hydrogen. These oils are extracted out of animal fat and plants like soybeans and algae. They are unsuitable for use as fuels in their raw stage as they contain oxygen in them. They are first catalytically treated to remove oxygen from them using Hydrogen. These molecules
are then cracked and rearranged to yield a mix of hydrocarbons similar to those found in petroleum-derived fuels. Specific benefits of using these include superior thermal stability and cetane number and reduced greenhouse gas emissions (Bibber, 2011).
Source: (Bibber, 2011)
During the Operation Iraq Freedom war at least 141 million metric tons of Carbon dioxide equivalents were emitted into the atmosphere. This figure is more than 139 countries‘ carbon emissions annually. Such costs will cover all of world‘s investments in renewable power generation for the next 10 years to reverse global warming trends (hynes, 2015). Limitations of fuel used currently by the United States Army include:
- Carbon dioxide emissions (triple than diesel and oil)
- Nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide, soot and water vapour emissions
- Lead to global warming
- Noise Pollution
All these limitations can be overcome by using bio-fuels instead of these as they have zero carbon properties to pollute the atmosphere. Though noise pollution will be reduced to a large extent, it still remains as a challenge to be solved.
Source: (Lawrence, 2014)
Data presentation and analysis with respect to first sub question:
A comparative study of fuel use by the United States Department of Defense – Army with alternative technologies and without alternative technologies. Alternative technologies for this include FT bio-fuel technologies, technology to produce Hydrogen related fuels and solar energy technology. It is assumed that Jets are run with a 50:50 mix of bio fuel with petroleum products. It is assumed that 80% electricity requirements of the U.S Army can be met by solar energy.
Source: (Bibber, 2011)
Data presentation and analysis of second sub-question:
Military since forever has been seen seeking ways to be environmentally responsible. Some of the ways in which it can reduce its carbon footprint concerns using energy-efficient technologies is:
- Lithium-air batteries: Usually soldiers find it difficult and heavy to carry energy requirements for their sophisticated electronic equipment. This can be overcome using
Lithium-air batteries as they are more long lasting and lighter (Jackson, 2011).
- Solar project: This includes the use of photovoltaic and thermoelectric cells by stitching them on the soldier‘s clothing. These cells produce and store power during the day. This power is in turn used to power soldier equipment.
Solar panels are installed on military installations in order to supply energy for air conditioning and soldier batteries. (Engineer Research and Development Center Champaign IL Construction Enginnering Research lab, 2005).
- Organic LED night vision devices: Organic light-emitting diodes will be used alongside thin-film technology to facilitate night vision devices. The amount of power required in this case will be restricted to just 5 volts. These 5 volts can be sufficed from the use of small and light batteries. (Fort, 2019)
- Air conditioning: The US military uses air conditioning extensively at military bases in Iraq and Afghanistan. This can be reduced considerably using Polyurethane foam insulation for the tents (Boyle, 2004).
- Biofuel programme: These biofuels can either be derived from plants, algae or animal fats. These when combined with petroleum based fuels can reduce the dependency on fossil fuels to a large extent. These can be used to run vehicles and jets (Bibber, 2011).
Limitations of current Military logistics:
Many supply-chain management practices which are globally accepted are not applicable in the United States Army set up. For instance, the concept of Just In Time (JIT) model which refers to holding less inventory doesn‘t hold good in the military scenario as they end up losing lives in case of stock shortages, hence they keep huge inventory (Army Research Lab Adelphi MD, 2006). They tend to carry bulky and heavy equipment and military installations which can be replaced with the use of lithium-air batteries and solar panels as discussed above. The entire process of transporting huge amounts of inflammable fuel can involve risks like explosion and attacks. This can also be reduced using energy-efficient non-fuel based energy sources for air conditioning. The limitations of carbon emissions can also be reduced by using biofuels derived out of plants and animal fuels instead of petroleum based products (Bibber, 2011).
Data presentation and analysis regarding final sub-question:
The United States Army requires secure and reliable power generation sources. Grid outrages can lead to cascading infrastructure failures as well as security breaches and hence should be avoided. Uncertain scenarios involving regulatory changes, emergent environmental conditions, growth of energy demands and others can result in more complications. Hence, there are certain risks involved in this shift to energy-efficient technology:
- Huge Research and Development investment:
The Department of Defense being one of the first organizations in the United States to adopt environment friendly policies has invested billions of dollars in the research and development of energy-efficient technologies. Not all research projects are successful and hence there is a huge chance of losing the investment and also the effort and time that went into the process.
- Insufficient training of personnel:
The Army personnel have a need to learn the working of the new modes of energy production in order to be able to use them in the base camps. Since it is new and different, the United States Department of Defense has to locate for experienced trainers to first educate the vast number of officers, soldiers and other military staff regarding the new findings. Insufficient knowledge can lead to extreme mishaps in the battleship.
- No guarantee of long term success:
Since use of renewable sources of energy is a new concept, there is no proof that it works in the long term. In order to be confident in their productivity, it will take time for the researchers to analyse its efficiency throughout few years. After few years, trends in their usage, their pros and cons can be analysed statistically in order to assess their performance.
- Loss of efficiency:
Usage of diesel or petrol based generators for electricity was a quick and reliable source of energy of the Military over the years. Replacing them with solar is a theoretically good practice, but its implementation can be difficult and unreliable. It can be produced only in areas with abundance of sunshine ignoring the possibility of different terrains and different climatic conditions. (Lambert, 2010).
Chapter 5Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
The research paper so far discussed the literature which exists regarding using of renewable sources of energy in the United States Military Forces, which includes the Army, the Navy and Marine, and the Air Force. The Department of Defense has made several public announcements in the past regarding its initiative of going green and reducing its carbon footprint. The research questions in this paper are drafted with relation to the benefits of this transition into non-renewable sources of energy. The data analysis part of the paper brings into light the alternatives which are available to the United States Army to adopt in place of petroleum based fuels. It also speaks about the risks associated in this process of shifting of energy overviews.
The data presented rightly provides solution to each research question.
The study looks at both benefits and limitations of installation of energy-efficient technology and use of renewable energy fuels like biofuel, etc. The benefits and its impact on the greater public good i.e. the environment is exponentially greater than the threats associated with its implementation. Though a complete change requires time and commitment of the United States Department of Defense, it is likely to be in force by 2030 according to their official public announcements. This will help save lives in the battlefields as well as improve environmental sustainability for the future generations. As per the facts provided in the data analysis part, a simple change in the organization can be a positive influence on the global environmental conditions.
The study‘s analysis concludes that use of renewable sources of energy and energy-efficient technology can save lives on the battlefield. This is due to the non-inflammable characteristics of solar energy sources which will reduce the 23% of total soldier deaths which is due to logistic based explosions. It will also help the soldiers to better perform in the war due to reduced weight of petroleum based fuel and equipment on their backs. It also evaluates the limitations associated with the petroleum-based fuels which included carbon emissions, global warming and noise pollution.
The study goes on to answer the sub-questions, first of which analysed the reduction in fuel consumption due to the use of energy-efficient technology. It was concluded that the fuel consumption before and after such installations varied by a large difference. After installations, the U.S Military fuel consumption has decreased by more than 50 percent as compared to energy inefficient technology based equipment usage.
The second sub-question analysis went on to evaluate the effects of implementing renewable sources based technology on Military logistics. The various alternative technologies like lithium air batteries, solar panels and biofuels were identified. Limitations of current logistics scenario were analysed and connected to the use of new alternatives.
The final sub-question was related to the risks or threats associated with introducing energyefficient technology on operational force. This was answered after going through various industry expert‘s opinion. Few of them include loss of huge investment in Research and Development, inadequate training, lack of guarantee of success, etc.
In the light of these observations, this chapter will present recommendations on how Department of Defense can better its implementation of eco-friendly policies as well as for additional research.
The Department of Defense should implement a department-wide alternative fuel policy. The policy shall primarily focus on improving conditions of lives in the battlefield. The Pentagon shall be extremely committed towards increasing the use of sustainable resources in every walk of its operations.
It should expand the use of biofuels for the use of running vehicles and jets. By doing this, a considerable amount of carbon and other toxic emissions will be reduced. This will also contribute in reduction of operational costs as their production is cheaper than depending on oil rich countries for fuel.
The use of solar panels and cells should be an integral part of the Army. Since there are very few negative impacts of this concept, it is safe and proactive to depend on this source of energy as it leads to better mobility due to light weight as well as sustainable development. Use of organic LED night vision equipment and lithium-based batteries shall also be implemented by the United States Army. But before these changes are introduced, it is important for the Pentagon to train and adequately educate the soldiers with the use of such equipment. Practical training is better than theoretical training as they are not engineers but consumers of the instruments.
Future Research Suggestions:
Biofuels are a considerably neglected field of study with the view of using it as energy source in public organisations. This area of study needs to be studied further and provides a scope for developing new alternative sources of energy.
Literature on convoy security issues and shortfalls is currently minimum which limited the reach of this research. This topic has a potential to discover newer ways of protecting soldier‘s lives.
Limitations of use of renewable sources of energy like the solar energy is an open ended area of study which still needs to be explored in connection with the Department of Defense policies and objectives.
Definition of Terms:
- Alternative fuels:
Alternative fuels popularly known as advanced fuels are any materials and substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels like petroleum based fuel, coal and natural gas, uranium and thorium.
- biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
- Carbon footprint:
- carbon footprint is defined as the total emissions caused by an individual, event, organization, or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent.
- Crude Oil:
Crude oil is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth‘s surface. It is commonly refined in to various types of fuels.
- Department of Defense (Department of Defense):
The Department of Defense is an executive branch of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with the national security and the United States Armed Forces.
- Green Energy:
Green energy includes natural energetic processes that can be harnessed with little pollution. Green power is electricity generated from renewable energy sources.
- Green technology:
Green technology popularly known as Environmental technology is the application of one or more of environmental science, green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement.
- Greenhouse gases:
A greenhouse gas is a gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth‘s atmosphere are water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone.
- Lithium-air battery:
The lithium-air battery is a metal air electrochemical cell or battery chemistry that uses oxidation of lithium at the anode and reduction of oxygen at the cathode to induce a current flow.
- Marine Corps
Marines are typically an infantry force that specialises in the support of naval and army operations at the see and on land and air, as well as the execution of their own operations. In the United States, the Marine Corps falls under the US Department of the Navy, yet it operates independently.
- Military Convoy:
A Military Convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships or jets, travelling together for mutual support and protection. It is often organized with armed defensive support.
- Military logistics:
It is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. It includes design, development, acquisition, maintenance, evacuation and disposition of material, Transport of personnel, acquisition of services and medical and health service support, etc.
The Pentagon, in Arlington County, Virginia is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense. It is used as a metonym for the Department of Defense and its leadership.
- Renewable resource:
A renewable resource is a natural resource which will replenish to replace the portion depleted by usage and consumption, either through natural reproduction or other recurring processed in a finite amount of time in a human time scale.
- Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA):
Emission Control Areas are sea areas in which stricter controls were established to minimize emissions from ships as defined by Annex VI of the 1997 MARPOL
Protocol. The emissions specifically include SOx, NOx, ODSs and VOCs.
- Sustainable Development:
Sustainable Development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
- Amy, W. &. (2011). Use of renewable resources in military.
- Army Environmental Policy Institute. (n.d.). Sustain the Mission Project: Casualty
- Army Research Lab Adelphi MD. (2006). Power and Energy Architecture for Army
Advanced Energy Initiative . Defense Technical Information Centre.
- Berdikeeva, S. (2017, 9 13). Energy Digital. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from Energy Digital .
- Bibber, J. T. (2011). Alternative Fuels for Military Applications. Santa Monica:
National Defense Research Institute.
- Boyle, G. (2004). Renewable Energy. Oxford University Press.
- Doerry, N. (2013). Calculating surface ship energy usage, energy cost an dfully burdened cost of energy. ASNE Naval Eng. J.
- Engineer Research and Development Center Champaign IL Construction Enginnering Research lab. (2005). Energy Trends and Their Implications for U.S. Army installations. Defense Technical Information Center.
- Fort, E. (2019). The U.S. Military and Oil. Union of Concerned Scientists.
- Frazier, T. P. (2014). Fuel Price Effects on Readiness. Virginia: Institute for Defense
Gardner, T. (2017). U.S. Military marches forward on green energy, despite trump.
- hynes, H. P. (2015). The Military Assault on Global Climate. In H. P. Hynes,
- Jackson, T. (2011). Lithium and its efficient use . Massachusetts: Massachusetts
Institute of technology .
- John B Holcomb, N. R. (2011). Causes of Death in U.S Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Annals of Surgery .
- Kandaramath, T. (2015). Aviation biofuel from renweable resources: Routes,
Opportunities and Challenges. Elsevier.
- Kazlauskas, S. P. (2003). Biocatalysis in ionic liquids- advantages beyond green technology. Current opinion in Biotehcnology.
- Kim Bawden, V. P. (2011). Ultra-Low Energy Army Installations. Arizona: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
- Lambert, C. W. (2010). Scenerio and multiple criteria decision analysis for energy and environmental security of military and industrial installations. Society of environmental assessment and management .
- Lawrence, J. (2014). The US Military is a Major contributor to Global Warming . San
Diego Free Press.
- Lele, S. (1991). Sustainable Development: a Critical Review . World Development.
- Lestz, S. (1992). Technology demonstration of US Army ground material operating on aviation kerosene fuel. SAE Technical Paper.
Menassa, C. (2012). Energy Consumption evaluation of U.S. Navy LEED- certified Buildings . Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities .
- Niven Winchester, D. M. (2013). Transportation Research Part A: Policy and
- Northern, L. C. (2009). Energy Sustainability and the Army: The Current
Transformation. Carlisle: U.S. Army War College.
- Reardon, S. (2012). Eco-warriors: US military pushes for green energy. New
- Robin Pelc, R. M. (2002). Renewable energy from the ocean .
- Roege, L. M. (2011). The Army's Operational.
- Rosenthal, E. (2010). S. Military Orders less dependence on fossil Fuels . The New Yorker Times.
- Schultz, M. (2011). Economic Impact of biofouling on a naval surface ship.
- Southwest Research Inst San Antonio TX Tardec Fuels and Lubricants research
Facility . (2009). Fire Resistant Fuel. Defense Technical Information Center .
- T Edwards, B. H. (2001). Properties and Usage of Air Force Fuel-JP-8. 39th
Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.
- Thompson, M. D. (2012). Convoy security shortfalls. Kansas: School of Advanced
Military Studies .
- tripathi, A. K. (1992). Changing environmental Ideologies . APH Publishing.
Adelekan, B. A. "Recent Advances in Renewable Energy: Research, Applications and Policy Initiatives." Physical Review & Research International (2012): 21.
- Adelekan, B.A. "Recent Advances in Renewable Energy: Research, Applications, and
Policy Initiatives." Physical Review & Research International (2012): 21.
- Army Environmental Policy Institute. Sustain the Mission Project: Casualty Factors
Sustain the Mission Project: Casualty Factors. Virginia, 2009.
- Berdikeeva, Energy Digital. 13 9 2017. 7 12 2018.
- Bhardwaj, Nomu and Neelam N. "The Advantages and Disadvantages of Green Technology." Journal of Basic and Applied Engineering Research (2015): 1957-1960.
- Environmental and energy study institute. "DoD‘s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Initiatives." (2011): 4.
- Gardner, Timothy. S. military marches forward on green energy, despite Trump. 1 March 2017. 7 12 2018. <https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-military-greenenergy-insight/u-s-military-marches-forward-on-green-energy-despite-trump-
- Timmons, David, Jonathan Harris, and Brian Roach. "The Economics of Renewable
Energy." (2014): 53.
- S Department of Interior Bureau of Reclamation. "Hydroelectric power."
Reclamation; managing water in the West (2005): 26.
Westervelt, Amy. Forbes. 14 2 2012. 7 12 2018.