A network interface card is a card which is installed in your computer so that user of the computer connected to network. Main feature it support is to connect user of system or standalone system with a dedicated full-time network. Network interface card abbreviate as NIC is also known as Ethernet card ,network adapter, LAN adapter. It is a type of expansion card which has same function to connect to network. Ethernet standard is not so popular, so most computer build network interface directly into motherboard. NIC contain electronic circuit which is required to communicate by using wired connection like Ethernet and wireless connection like WiFi.
NIC is behave like an interface between your computer and network as the name implies. The NIC card translate computer data which is requested by user into electrical signals it send through the network to the server. The electronic signals we are sending they should be compatible with the network so that computer can exchange information without any interruption. Because of the popularity of the Internet, now all computers have some form of interface card included. Network cards are bare-bones to computers usually they do not have till now.
Understand the functioning of NIC by example: Suppose you log on to any website so the system passes the information of the website to the network card which is already installed on your system, card convert the website address into electrical impulses. After that network cables carry these impulses to the web server somewhere on the Internet, then your request’s response is send back by sending a web page to you which is again in electrical form and then your card turn that web page and display on you PC.
Wi-Fi network allow to communicate over a wireless network. Network having an antenna to send data signals via radio waves. It is a way to connect to wireless network. Now all modems have built in Wi-Fi chips which allow user to find connect him to wireless routers. In that case router must be connected to internet. If you have been in a library, coffee shop, hospital, metro or at someone home having wifi connection, chances are you have been right in the middle of network to access internet. wireless routers can be configured only to specific standard 802.11.
This type of network connection is widely used for personal computer. These cables have a rectangular plug which mates with the jacks of network card’s bracket. This type of network connection standard describes hardware and communication protocol. Hardware to make physical connection and communication protocol to send data by specific set of rules. Ethernet comes in 1980 and replaced many wired network technologies. Because the time it came it is very popular and widely used, most modern computer have NIC built into motherboard.
Example of Ethernet connection integrated on motherboard: it uses a standard interface RJ45 connector which is a standard registered jack.
Example of Ethernet cable: Ethernet cable can be used by using RJ45 connector which plug into the Ethernet connection of a computer. A small Led light show connection is active.