The ? (alpha) phage vectors can be used as naked DNA and introduced into E.coli cells just as is plasmid DNA by heat shock following CaCl2 treatment the method known as transfection. The phenomenon of transfection is identical to transformation, except that in this case phage DNA is introduced into the bacterial cell in place of plasmid DNA.
Extrachromosomal replicons which are stablely inherited existing as double-stranded circular molecules are known as plasmids. The procedure through which a DNA is introduced in a host is known as transformation, it includes the process like micro-injection and biolistic.
Plasmids which include the cos site are termed as cosmids and they are used as gene cloning vectors in conjugation with the in vitro packaging system. The recombinant cosmid DNA is injected and circularizes like phage DNA but replicates as a normal plasmid without the expression of any phage functions. The transformed cells are selected on the basis of a vector drug resistance marker.
Four different types of enzymes are used viz. nucleases, ligases, polymerases and certain DNA modifying enzymes.
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