This is special type of transduction in which information is transfered through all over the body by chemical and hormonal activity. Approx 10 to 100000 molecules per cell. It may be assembled dynamically. In this process catalyst and substrate are in same order.
Here we explain some specifications of signal transduction : a) Specificity : Any signal molecules fit into the binding site with its complementary receptor and other signals never fit. b)Amplification : When any enzymes activates to other enzymes, then present molecules increases geometrically and forms an enzyme cascade. c) desensitization : receptors can activates triggers a feedback circuits that off the receptor or may be remove its from the cell surface. c) Integration : When any two signals gives opposite effects on a metabolic characteristic ,then the output is integrated from both receptors.
Here some type of signal transduction in human body within cells :
Autocrine Signaling : In this type cells alter their own extracellular environment, that affects cell's function way, cells secretes own chemical outside membrane and outside chemical modify the behavior of that cell, this is important of growth.
Paracrine Signaling : Its affects the adjacent cell through secreting chemical into the common cell, its important for embryonic development.
Endocrine Signaling: In this type utilize hormone of the body, chemical secrets by cell into the bloodstream, these chemicals are affects on distant target cell.
Direct Signaling: Its transfer ions from one to another adjacent cell through membranal pores, membranal pores built out membrane protein an called gap junction. This is fastest mode of transduction. example Heart.
Synaptic Signaling: This is found in nervous system , most specific and paracrine signaling between two nerve cell and nerve cell or muscle.
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