**6.1 Introduction**: Roman numerals are number system of ancient Rome represented in terms of alphabets. It does not include zero. They are commonly used in numbered lists, clock, pages preceding the main body of a book, months of the year, and even for naming successive political leaders or children like Elizabeth II.

**6.2 Symbols**

I – Stands for One

V - Stands for Five

X- Stands for Ten

L- Stands for Fifty

C- Stands for One Hundred

D- Stands for Five hundred

M- Stands for One Thousand

Roman numerals are written by iterating the symbols.

I = 1

II = 2

III = 3

IV = 4

V = 5

VI = 6

VII = 7

VIII = 8

IX = 9

X = 10

Numerals above X (10) are XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX and XX is 20.

Then XXX = 30,

XXXI = 31

and so on.

XL = 40, XLI = 41 etc.

LX = 60, LXX = 70, LXXX = 80, XC = 90

Let's try to create a large number in Roman numerals. Let's write 1947 in roman.

Start from the left:

1000 = M

900 = CM

40 = XL

7 = VII

Now put them together MCMXLVII

IV means 1 from 5, while VI means 5+1. Therefore a digit could be both positive and negative depending on whether it is to the right or left of the higher digit.

4 = IV (5 - 1)

9 = IX (10-1)

19 = XIX (10+10-1)

40 = XL (50-10)

90 = XC (100-10)

Various rules can be used for subtraction with Roman Numerals.

(a) Only subtract powers of ten (I, X, or C, but not V or L).

(b) Only subtract one numeral from another.

(c) Do not subtract a numeral from another that is more than 10 times greater.

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