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Polysaccharides

It is a another important group of polymers, these are pervasively biopolymers which is made-up from monosaccharides. These are belongs to carbohydrate and maximumly in plants. They can be linear and branched. Source of polysaccharides are: a) Microbial fermentation, b) higher plants (seeds, tree extruder, marine plants), c) polymer's chemical modifications. It can strongly react with water, and it is highly soluble. And strongly extended interact together with polymers, so it is insoluble. And also limited interaction with polymer in gelatine.

Types Of Polysaccharides or glycans:

a) Homopolysaccharides: These are those polymers which contain single type of monomers or monosaccharide. Such as inulin also called Fructosan, Starch, glycogen, celluloses, Galactogen also called Agar. Glycogens are called storage polysaccharides, and basically known as animal starch, found in muscles and liver, and highly molecular weighted cells. In liver, functions of glycogen is synthesis and degradation of blood sugar level, work as buffer to maintain blood sugar level. Where as in muscles, regulate to energy by itself. In plants, very common polysaccharide is starch, which contains 10-30% amylose and 70-90% amylopectin.

dextrine: It is produced after partial hydrolysis of starch, maltose and glucose. Some examples are here: Amylodextrin, erythrodextrin. It is used as mucilage. It also helpful in infant formula i.e. preventing curdling of milk in baby stomach. Those dextrine, which is indigestible are developed as soluble fiber supplements in food products.

Cellulose: It is a structural polysaccharide, by products of glucose after hydrolysis. Such as microcrystalline cellulose, which is used in tablets as binder disintegrant, Methylcellulose (suspending agent and bulk laxative), oxidized cellulose, sodium carboxymethyle cellulose etc.

b)Heteropolysaccharides: It is a carbohydrates consisting repeating disaccharides, disaccharides are basically acid and amino sugars. Acid sugars are usually D-Glucuronic acid and amino sugar is D-Glucosamine or D-Glactosamine, these groups are often acetylated eliminates its positive charge. Types are: a) Neutral heteropolysaccharides is found in Pneumococci capsules, and also egg proteins. It acts as blood group substance, in which four monosaccharide, glactose, galactosamine etc. b) proteoheteropolysaccharides, is made-up of glycosaminoglycans attached to the core protein through covalent bond, and found in connective tissues, extarcellular matrix, and also surface of many cells. It is many types.

Functions of Proteoheterosaccharides: It is divided in two classes a) Biophysical, In this class, it acts as constitutes of extra-cellular matrix or may be ground substance, is interact with collagen and elastin, participates in turgor to extracellular matrix, work as barrier in the tissue, work as lubricant at joints, It helps in cell transfer in embryonic tissue. b) Biochemical: It mediated by specific binding of glycans to other macromolecules. Its contribute in development and physiology of cells and tissues.

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