Biotechnology Assignment Help With Nucleotides


This is a type of nitrogenous bases, basically having carbon ring structure containing nitrogen attached with 5-carbon sugar or a ribose. And these bases having two basic structures called Purine and Pyrimidine. Nucleotides are the basic unit of DNA and RNA and we can also say that these are the building blocks of DNA, RNA, Which get energy from intracellular energy resources ATP by the help of second messengers such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate and signaling switches are G-protein. It is a monomeric units of nucleic acids. Its phosphates are redundant. Most of them are ribonucleotide, and nucleotides are polyprotic.

Nucleotide Structure: Due to the complexity and diversity of life the structure of DNA is dependent on only four different nucleotides, and diversity is dependent on the sequence of nucleotides. Every nucleotides have two ring structures: 5-carbon sugar is structured as beta-D-ribose (RNA)and b-D-deoxyribose (DNA), Bases are purine and pyrimidine, and any nucleotide without phosphate is called nucleoside. Nucleoside bases have two possible conformation are: syn and anti. Basically most common physiological conformation is anti, but presents both, and due to both lower steric strain occurs, and fact is this conformation is required for nucleic acids structures. Due to steric hindrance, rotation of ribose is restricted, thats why nucleotides must be synthesized in one form and in other form. Syn is drawn for purine most frequently because its occupy less.

In humans, maximum purines and pyrimidine are presents as nucleotides but here is major exceptions, which are xanthine and uric acids. But some organisms use purines for other purposes and they maintain its in free form. Here is an example of its provided through methylated xanthine derivatives produced in plants, which have biological activity in humans: humans: 1,3 dimethylxanthine (theophylline, is actively found in chocolates, 3,7 dimethylxanthine (theobromine, discovered in tea) and 1,3,7 trimethylxanthine (in caffeine).

Function of Nucleotides:

a) Nucleoside 5'-triphosphates is energy carriers, b) Bases of nucleotides are work as a recognition unit, c) Signal molecules are in the form of cyclic nucleotides and these are the regulators of cellular metabolism and reproductions, d) ATP is act as a center to energy metabolism, e) GTP for proteins synthesis, f) CTP for lipid synthesis, g) UTP for carbohydrate metabolism.

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