It is the study of maximum variety of living organisms which is too small for us which can not seen by the naked eyes, called Microbes, or Microorganism. It is a basic science which is explained by the study bacteria and yeast. Maximum microorganism are microscopic. The organisms are differentiated into two parts a) Eukaryotes and b) Prokaryotes.
Eukaryotes: These cells are appear smaller and multicellular. It is membrane bound nucleus having DNA, DNA containing chromosomes and diploid two copy of genes. Sterols are presents in plasma membrane. Mitosis and Meiosis two types of reproductions occurs, chloroplast and mitochondria is also found.
Prokaryotes: It is a single cells organism. It is a non-membrane bound nucleiod reasons, DNA one circular molecules and one chromosomes. Its having one copy of gene and heploid. Sterols are not present in plasma membrane. Reproduction is occurred by simply binary fission. The sheer number of microbial cells in all over the world is mind recordable and enormously, maximum in number. This consequences is due to their small size, that means maximum number can fit in smaller space, and smaller nutrient can feed maximum cells. Such as Escherichia coli is famous well study and typical prokaryotes is a shorter in length measure in micrometer and diameter is also in micrometer and weighing in picogram. However there is much variation in prokaryotic cell size, Escherichia coli is a typical which is well study and define their size and this is common size. In study it has been estimated that average E.coli in human body is replicate itself every 12 hour or may more than 700 times in a year.
Applications: It is a applied science a) Industries for making beer, wine, cheeses, and yoghurt. b) Agriculture, for improving soil fertility and digestion in cattle. c) Ecology, bioremediation in which microorganism that degraded into toxic wastes. and d) Medical science.
Microbiology is in medical science: It is explained about performance of human blood and body fluids. In human body microoragnism can cause many disease, then microbiologist determine the organism types which caused the disease in human body, and find the drug which inhibit the microorganism, basically antibiotic.
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