Biochemical production by cultured cells can be increased chiefly by the following approaches.
Biochemical production by plant cells is markedly influenced by the constituent of culture medium and other factors like temperature, light, inoculum size.
Biochemical content of cell cultures depends on the plant species, the genotype, the specific plant of a strain and explants from which the cell cultures are derived. The use of such stable high-producing clones is very important as it reduces the cost of production. High producing plants yield high producing cultures.
Some molecules called elicitors stimulate the production of secondary metabolites. Elicitors of plant origin are polysaccharides derived from cell wall, e.g., pectin, pectic acid, cellulose, while those of microorganism origin are cell wall components like chitin, chitosan or glucans, some glycoproteins and low molecular weight organic acids also act as elicitors. All these elicitors are of biological origin and hence known as biotic elicitors. The abiotic elicitors are UV light, salts of heavy metals, and chemicals that disturb membrane integrity.
In some cases, organized structures possessing the specialized cells that synthesis secondary metabolites are grown in vitro for isolation of the biochemicals. Whereas in some cases, the secondary metabolites may be released in the medium, where they may be degraded or their synthesis may be regulated by feedback inhibition, in such cases, it is helpful to remove the biochemicals from the medium as soon as they are released from cells. This is done by adding a compound which either adsorbs (activated charcoal, polyethylene glycol, XAD-2, XAD-4, XAD-7), dissolves (miglyol) or encapsulates (ĂŸ-cyclodextrines) such a culture system is called two-phase system.
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