Improving Biochemical Production Assignment Help

Improving Biochemical Production

Biochemical production by cultured cells can be increased chiefly by the following approaches.

i) Optimization of medium and culture conditions:

Biochemical production by plant cells is markedly influenced by the constituent of culture medium and other factors like temperature, light, inoculum size.

ii) Development of high producing clones:

Biochemical content of cell cultures depends on the plant species, the genotype, the specific plant of a strain and explants from which the cell cultures are derived. The use of such stable high-producing clones is very important as it reduces the cost of production. High producing plants yield high producing cultures.

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iii) Elicitors:

Some molecules called elicitors stimulate the production of secondary metabolites. Elicitors of plant origin are polysaccharides derived from cell wall, e.g., pectin, pectic acid, cellulose, while those of microorganism origin are cell wall components like chitin, chitosan or glucans, some glycoproteins and low molecular weight organic acids also act as elicitors. All these elicitors are of biological origin and hence known as biotic elicitors. The abiotic elicitors are UV light, salts of heavy metals, and chemicals that disturb membrane integrity.

iv) Use of organ cultures and two–phase systems:

In some cases, organized structures possessing the specialized cells that synthesis secondary metabolites are grown in vitro for isolation of the biochemicals. Whereas in some cases, the secondary metabolites may be released in the medium, where they may be degraded or their synthesis may be regulated by feedback inhibition, in such cases, it is helpful to remove the biochemicals from the medium as soon as they are released from cells. This is done by adding a compound which either adsorbs (activated charcoal, polyethylene glycol, XAD-2, XAD-4, XAD-7), dissolves (miglyol) or encapsulates (ĂŸ-cyclodextrines) such a culture system is called two-phase system.

The main topics which are considered in Plant Biotechnology are discussed in brief as follows:

  1. Large Scale Cultures
  2. Biochemical Production
  3. Enhancing Biomass Yields
  4. Improving Biochemical Production
  5. Biotransformation
  6. Micropropagation
  7. Virus Free Plants
  8. Somaclonal Variation
  9. Haploid Plants
  10. Embryo Rescue
  11. Somatic Hybrids And Cybrids
  12. Germplasm Conservation

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