Heat transfer is the transfer of heat from a hotter object to a cooler object. When an object or fluid is at a different temperature than surrounding or another object, transfer of thermal energy, also known as heat transfer, or heat exchange, occurs in such a way that the body and the surroundings reach equilibrium. Heat transfer always occurs from a higher-temperature object to a cooler temperature one as described by the Clausius statement. Heat transfer can never be stopped but it can be slowed.
Conduction is the transfer of heat by direct contact of matter particles. The transfer of energy could be primarily by elastic impact as in fluids or by diffusion of free electrons as predominant in metals. Heat is transferred by conduction when adjacent atoms vibrate or as electrons move. Conduction is greater in solids due constant contact. In liquids (except liquid metals) and gases, the molecules are usually further apart and thus low conduction.
Heat conduction is analogous to diffusion of particles into a fluid. This type of heat diffusion differs from mass diffusion in behavior, as it can occur in solids whereas mass diffusion occurs mostly in fluids.
Metals like copper, platinum, gold, iron, etc. are generally the best conductors of thermal energy.
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