Haploid plants are produced in large numbers by anther and ovary cultures, the seedlings obtained from such crosses are haploid (having only one set of chromosomes). The chromosome number of haploid plant can be doubled by using colchicines; the plants so obtained are completely homozygous. Haploid plants regenerated from callus cultures show genetic variation which is known as gametoclonal variation, which may be subjected to selection at the haploid level. Analytical breeding involves extraction of dihaploids from tetraploid species, breeding at the dihaploid levels followed by chromosome doubling of selected dihaploid lines to obtain tetraploid variety.
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