The sum total of all the genes present in a crop and its related species constitutes its germplasm. It is the basic indispensable ingredient of all breeding programme, and is conserved as seeds stored in ambient temperature, low temperature, or ultra low temperature. Processes of germplasm conservation includes freeze preservation (in this cell/tissues are stored at -196째C in liquid nitrogen), slow growth cultures (shoot cultures are maintained in a state of slow growth imposed by low temperature, growth retardant or elevated osmotic concentration of the medium), artificial seeds or desiccated somatic embryos (they are stored at low 4째C, or ultralow -20째C temperatures for prolonged periods), and DNA clones (germplasm conserved in DNA segments cloned in vectors like cosmids, phasmids, or artificial chromosomes).
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