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Genetics

It deals with biologically inherited traits which is determined by the heredity elements which transfered from parents to the offsprings during reproductions, and these elements are called genes. The heredity element was first discovered by Gergor Mendel on experimenting with garden peas. His experiment is best of another experiments, beautifully designed, perfectly executed, and elegantly shows in comparatively others experiments.

Genes are made-up of a special type of chemical substance called DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, which covers 99% part in cells. And first proof of that genes are DNA came from study of bacteria called streptococcus pneumoniae which caused pneumonia. DNA, RNA and molecular biology is widely describe in genetics.

All genetics information is given by Genome, In human cells, 46 genomes are found which is one pair of sex chromosomes ( XY in male and XX in females) and 22 pair of chromosomes called Autosomes. Here we discussed about some chormosomal disorder in human.

Autosomal Recessive : This abnormality usually shows in male and female children of unaffected parents, such as Cystic Fibrosis.

Autosomal Dominant : This abnormality is shown in every generation of pedigree by affected males and females, affected parents transmits the phenotype to their children, such as Huntington disease.

X-Linked Recessive : This abnormality is mostly shown in males then females, and all the female child of an affected male are carriers, none of the male child of an affected male shows this disorder, such as Hemophilia.

X-Linked Dominant : This disorder is passed by father to all daughters but none of any sons. And then affected heterozygous females married to unaffected males and pass this condition to their children half to their sons and half to daughters, such as fragile X syndrome.

Codominant : Two different types of alleles of gene can be shows itself, and each alleles make changes in slightly different proteins, genetic traits are influenced by both of them, and also determine the characteristic of genetic conditions. For an example ABO Locus.

Mitochondrial : This inheritance is caused by genes which presents in mitochondrial DNA. This disorder can shows in each generations of family and it can affected both child, but father not passed this traits to their sons and daughters. For an example Leber's hereditary ophildrentic neuropathy.

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