The use of biological agents to convert the energy sources like biomass and sunlight into convenient fuels such as methane, ethanol, butanol, biodiesel and hydrogen constitutes fuel biotechnology.
Topic 1: Biomass: It is the total cellular dry weight or organic material produced by an organism (usually from co2 and sunlight).
Topic 2: Renewable and nonrenewable energy resources: The energy resources that are replaced by natural process are called renewable energy resources. These resources are inexhaustible. Biomass (from plants), sunlight, streams of water, wind, tide, and draft animals (even humans) are the examples of renewable sources of energy. The energy resources that are present on the earth in limited quantities such as mineral oil, coal, natural gas, and even nuclear energy are the non renewable sources of energy.
Topic 3: The fossil fuels: Fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas) are the main sources of energy and nuclear energy provides only about 7% of the global energy needs.
Topic 4: Conventional fuels: It includes Oil (petroleum), Coal, and Natural gas etc.
Topic 5: The products of fuel biotechnology: It explains the commercial products created with the help of biotechnology such as:
1. Biogas: It is the mixture of gases (about 60 % methane) produced by anaerobic bacterial digestion of organic matter.
2. Bioethanol: It is a fuel made from agricultural crops such as sugarcane.
3. Biobutanol: It is a second generation alcoholic biofuel with high energy density.
4. Biodiesel: It is a diesel fuel made from natural and renewable sources of energy such as vegetable oils.
5. Biohydrogen: It refers to the biological production of hydrogen.
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