3.8 Failures of Bohr’s Theory
It failed to explain spectra of atoms having more than one electron.
It failed to explain Zeeman effect. When a substance emitting a line spectrum is placed in a magnetic field, its lines would split up into a number of closely spaced lines. This is known as Zeeman effect.
It failed to explain stark effect. It is similar to Zeeman effect and is produced in a presence of external electrostatic field.
Although Bohr’s theory predicted with great accuracy the positions of spectral lines of hydrogen atom and the singly ionized helium atom but refined spectroscopic analysis has shown that these lines are not simple but have fine structure, i.e., they consist of a number of component lines lying close together.
It is difficult to find the effect of other electrons upon the energy state of any particular electron.
The pictorial concept of electrons jumping from one orbit to another orbit is not justified because of the uncertainty of their positions and velocities.
The main objection against Bohr theory is that it involves the use of two theories which are essentially opposed to each other, the quantum theory involved to account for existence of stationary orbits and for frequencies of the radiation while motion of electrons in its orbit obeys the laws of classical mechanics.
It cannot explain the shapes of molecules formed by the combination of atoms.
No justification was provided for the principle of quantization of angular momentum, so why angular momentum is
…etc. and why it can not be
etc is explained here.
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