Elements of Programming
Process to develop various sets of instruction is known as programming. To develop any instruction there are some elements needed or we can essentially present in all language. So any programming language is made up of 5 basic elements of the instructions that we are going to discuss in this page.
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5 Basic elements of Programming
- Variables: variables in programming tells how the data is represented which can be range from very simple value to complex one. The value they contain can be change depending on condition. As we know program consist of instructions that tell the computer to do things and data the program use when it is running. Data is constant with the fixed values or variable. They can hold a very simplex value like an age of the person to something very complex like a student track record of his performance of whole year.
- Loops: we can define loop as a sequence of instructions that are repeated continuously till a certain condition is not satisfied. How a loop start understand this first a certain process is done, to get any data and changing it after that applied condition on the loop is checked whether counter reached to prescribed number or not. Basically a loop carry out execution of a group of instruction of commands a certain number of times. There is also a concept of infinite loop which is also termed as endless loop is a piece of code that lack from functional exit and goes to repeat indefinitely.
- Conditionals: conditionals specify the execution of the statements depending on the whether condition is satisfied or not. Basically it refers to an action that only fulfil when the applied condition on instructions satisfied. They are one of the most important components of the programming language because they give freedom to program to act differently every time when it execute that depends on input to the instructions.
- Input/output: the element of computer programming allow interaction of the program with the external entities. Example of input/output element are printing something out to the terminal screen, capturing some text that user input on the keyboard and can be include reading and writing files. Let’s take a language example to understand the concept of input and output. C++ use streams to perform input and output operation in sequential media in terms of screen, the keyboard or a file. We can define stream as an entity that can insert or extract characters and there is no need to know details about the media associated to the stream or any of its internal specification. We need to know about streams is that they are source or destination of characters and the characters are accepted sequentially.
- Subroutines and functions: the element of the programming allow a programmer to use snippet of code into one location which can be used over and over again. The primary purpose of the functions is to take arguments in numbers of values and do some calculation on them after that return a single result. Functions are required where you need to do complicated calculations and the result of that may or may not be used subsequently used in an expression. If we talk about subroutines that return several results. Where calls to subroutines cannot be placed in an expression whether it is in the main program where subroutine is activated by using CALL statement which include the list of inputs and outputs that enclosed in the open and closed parenthesis and they are called the arguments of the subroutines. There are some of the rules follow by both to define name like less than six letters and start with the letters. The name should be different that used for variables and functions.