Concurrency control ensure the correct result for concurrent operation for multiprocessors, operating system, computer program and database. It is used for preventing two different users (or two different connections by the same user) from trying to update the same data at the same time. It can also prevent one user from seeing out-of-data while another user is updating the same data.
Delay the checking of whether a transaction meets the isolation and other integrity rules (for example, serializability and recoverability) until its end, without blocking any of its operations,
and then abort a transaction to prevent the violation, if the desired rules are to be violated upon its commit. An aborted transaction is immediately restarted and re-executed, which incurs an obvious overhead (versus executing it to the end only once). If not too many transactions are aborted, then being optimistic is usually a good strategy.
Block an operation of a transaction, if it may cause violation of the rules, until the possibility of violation disappears. Blocking operations is typically involved with performance reduction.
Block operations in some situations, if they may cause violation of some rules, and do not block in other situations while delaying rules checking to transaction's end, as done with optimistic.
Different categories provide different performance, i.e., different average transaction completion rates (throughput), depending on transaction types mix, computing level of parallelism,
and other factors. If selection and knowledge about trade-offs are available, then category and method should be chosen to provide the highest performance.
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