Computer Memory and Processing Devices: Functions & Characteristics

Computer Memory

Computer memory is used to store data and instructions or in other words we can say memory is a storage space where data has be processed and stored and same with the instructions. Memory is divided into cells with the large number of small parts for example if memory space is 32k words then the storage location is 32×1024=32768 means the address location varies from 0 to 32767.

Primarily there are three types of memory

  • Cache Memory: Cache memory is the one that computer microprocessor access it very first it is also know as CPU memory and random access memory abbreviated as RAM. Memory is integrated directly with the CPU or near to it. One of the basic function of cache memory is to store program instruction that are rarely referenced by software during performance. Whenever microprocessor process data or any instruction its first look in the cache memory if found well and good but if its not then further process larger storage devices. The term multi-level cache has become popular in server and desktop architecture because different levels providing greater efficiency by managing tiers. Advantages of using cache memory is this is faster than main memory by consuming less access time also store data for temporary use. Store only programs that can executed within less time. But it also has some of the disadvantages: Memory has limited capacity with very high cost.
  • Primary Memory: Primary memory is also known as main memory it holds data and instruction on which computer is currently working. This is generally made up of semiconductors devices usually volatile memory. It lost data if computer is switched off. This is the working memory of the computer faster than secondary memory or we can say a computer cannot run without primary memory. These memories are faster than RAM and Rom but with the limited capacity as data loss when system get turned off.
  • Secondary Memory: This memory is also known by external and non-volatile memory. Used to store data or information permanently. These are magnetic and optical memories and also known as backup memory. Data is permanently stored on this memory either power is switched off or on. But we cannot access this memory directly this can only be done via input output routines through content sends to main memory and CPU access it. Computer may run without secondary memory and this is slower than primary memory. Example of Secondary memory: disk, CD-ROM, DVD and so on.

Computer Processing Devices

When a computer receives any inputted data it first goes through intermediate stage that is known as processing stage before getting output of that inputted data. So, the processing device is responsible to handle by controlling the storage and retrieval of data.

Some of the processing devices of computer are:

  • CPU: CPU referred to as processor and central processing unit. It is used to handle all instruction which it receives from hardware and software. To know more about CPU.To get detailed information about CPU Click Here
  • Motherboard: Motherboard is such type of a physical arrangement that contains computer’s basic components is called motherboard. The most common motherboard design in desktop computer is AT. Computer components include in motherboard are: Multiprocessor, Memory ,BIOS (basic input/output systems) ,Interconnected circuitry ,Expansion slot ,RAM ,ROM.To get detailed information about Motherboard Click Here
  • Graphic Processing Unit: Also known as display adapters, graphic cards, video adapter and so on. Main function of video card is to display image on the screen. Without video card you would not able to see this page.
  • Network Cards: A network interface card is a card which is installed in your computer so that user of the computer connected to network. Main feature it support is to connect user of system or standalone system with a dedicated full-time network. Network interface card abbreviate as NIC is also known as Ethernet card, network adapter, LAN adapter. It is a type of expansion card which has same function to connect to network. Ethernet standard is not so popular, so most computer build network interface directly into motherboard. NIC contain electronic circuit which is required to communicate by using wired connection like Ethernet and wireless connection like WiFi.
Computer Working Flow