Animal cell cultures are used to produce virus vaccines along with a variety of other biochemicals, which are mainly high molecular weight proteins like enzymes, hormones, cellular biochemicals like interferons, and immunological compounds including monoclonal antibodies. Transplantable tissues and organs are yet another valuable product which is obtained by cell cultures, artificial skins are already in use and effort are being made for the development of transplantable cartilages and other tissues.
Viruses that attack their hosts and introduce their genetic material into the host cells as part of their replication cycle are used as vectors to transfer healthy genes or more recently portions of genes.
Few diseases against which virus vaccines have been developed are Canine distemper, Foot and Mouth disease, Hepatitis-B, Influenza, Measles, Mumps, Polio, Rabies and Rubella.
Interferons are produced from human leucocytes isolated from donor blood and cultured in vivo, and from mouse fibroblast cultures. The other immunoregulatory biochemicals produced are interleukin-2 and lymphokines.
Recombinant proteins form an important component of biopharmaceuticals; i.e. biotechnology products having pharmaceuticals applications, a numerous number of such proteins are being produced in mammalian cell cultures like human growth hormone (hGh), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), erythropoietin and blood clotting factor VIII. Others include enzymes like Collagenase, Pepsin, Rennin, Trypsin, Urokinase, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Various hormones are also being developed as recombinant protein product such as luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, chorionic hormone and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH).
Monoclonal antibodies are produced from hybridoma clones. Each hybridoma clone is derived by the fusion of a myeloma cell and an antibody producing lymphocyte, and the desired antibody is identified and isolated. Hybridoma cells are mass cultured for the production of monoclonal antibodies either in vivo in the peritoneal cavity of mice or in vitro in large scale culture vessels.
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