The solutions which resist the change in its pH value on addition of small amount of acid or base are called buffer solutions. On adding small amount of acid or base there is no significant Change in pH of the buffer solution.
It contains mixture of weak acid and its salt with strong base. e.g. mixture of CH3 COOH and CH3COONa.
For acidic buffer of
We have in solution - molecules, CH3COO– ions and Na+ ions.
Dissociation of weak electrolyte is suppressed in the presence of common ion CH3COO– from CH3COONa. So, pH for such buffer can be calculated by following formula:
It is the mixture of weak base and its salt with strong acid. e.g. NH4OH and NH4Cl.
For basic buffer solution of NH4OH and NH4Cl. We have in solution- NH4OH, ions and Cl– ions.
Dissociation of weak electrolyte NH4OH is suppressed in the presence of common ion from NH4Cl. So, pOH for such buffer can be given by:
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