Fermentation wastes may be treated on-site or at an STW by any or all these methods:
a) Physical treatment: The waste is disposed of without any treatment or the waste bulk is reduced by dewatering with a filter press, centrifuge, rotary vacuum filter or belt press. The compressed waste is then incinerated or disposed of in a landfill site.
b) Chemical treatment: fine suspended particles in an effluent may be removed by coagulation and/ or flocculation. Ferrous or ferric sulphate, ammonium sulphate (alum), and poly electrolytes are often used as chemical coagulants.
c) Biological treatment: most organic-waste materials may be degraded biologically. It may be done aerobically or anaerobically in a number of ways. The most widely used aerobic processes are trickling filters, rotating disc contactors, activated sludge processes. The anaerobic processes (digestion, filtration, and sludge blankets) are used in the treatment of specific wastewaters and in sludge conditioning.
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