It is a digestive enzymes, which works on breakdown of carbohydrates troughs breaking the bonds between sugar molecules into the form of polysaccharides by hydrolysis reaction mechanisms. This can be see in animals, plants, and bacteria. Now in these days, it is the most important enzymes in biotechnology application. Amylase is divided in three types : a) Alpha-amylase, b) Beta-amylase, and c) Gamma-amylase. These types are differentiate on the basis of hydrolization and their polysaccharides bonds. Beta and gamma amylase are not found in animal tissue. Then we can only discus about Alpha- amylase, which play an important role in digestive and metabolic process.
Alpha-Amylase: In cereals grains and their products, level of alpha amylase is significantly affected by industrial exploitation of these commodity. The level of alpha amylase in bread making must be sufficient to produce saccharides, which is used by yeast. The level of alpha-amylase in brewing industries is a key quality parameters.
Beta-amylase: In cereals grain, complete degradation of starch for metabolizable or fermenting sugars throughout the malting or germination process. It is also play important roles together with starch debarnching enzymes in application and production of high maltose syrup. It is basically measured by the help of non-specific reducing sugars assay with starch as substrates.
Altering The Activity Of Amylase: Amylase is a type of enzymes which is made-up of proteins, whose activity basically depends on their shapes and structures. Here we discuss some chemicals or inhibiter whose alter the amylase activities.
High Temperature: Higher the temperature, higher the energy of molecules. It is a "double-edged swords". Maximum molecules of the substrates have maximum energy for reacting. And when higher the energy of enzymes molecules results weaker covalent bond between them.
Low Temperature: Lower the temperature, lower the energy of molecules. Some of molecules have much energy to react, so they will react in given time.
EDTA: This is called chelating agent, and function of this agent is to binding the ions like Calcium and magnisium so tgihtly and that they can not bind with others. Mostly use two concentration of EDTA: 2mM and 5mM.
Amylase Inhibiter: These are the proteins and binds with active site of amylase, it is nutritional supplements. By using one mortar and pestle, we can make solution of amylase inhibiter by opening and grinding one tablet. After that dissolve the resulting product in 10ML buffer solutions. And it will be full strength inhibiter solutions.
In these days amylase is produced by bacteria called Bacillus amyloliquefaciens P-001. Enzyme can also be produced by variety of starch substrates and corn flour is most suitable natural source for maximum productions.
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