Administration of Drugs
i) Intradermal- The drug is injected in the layers of the skin. Eg vaccine BCG
ii) Subcutaneous- non irritant substance alone can be injected by this route. The rate of absorption is even slow and the drug effect is prolonged.
iii) Intravenous- The drug is administered by directly injecting into veins (absorption is fast).
iv) Intramuscular- The drug is injected deep into muscular tissues. Uniform rate of absorption is seen.
v) Intraarterial- In this mode the drug is injected into an artery. The effect of the drug can be localized in a particular organ or tissue by choosing the appropriate artery.
vi) Intraperitoneal- This mode is done by injecting the drug into the peritoneal cavity, but this route fluid like glucose and saline can be administered to children.
vii) Bone Marrow- Injection is very similar to intravenous injection, his route is useful when the veins are not available due to the circulatory collapse or thrombosis
By this mode the gases, volatile liquid, aerosols or vapour can be administered.
i) Ion-Tophoresis- In this method drug is driven deep into the skin by the means of galvanic current supply.
ii) Inunction- Is rubbing the drug on the skin; the drug is absorbed and produces systemic effects.
iii) Jet-Injection- A gun like instrument is used with a microfine orifice, the drug solution is projected with a high velocity jet also known as dermo jet.
iv) Adhesives- Trans-dermal administration in the form of adhesive unit. It delivers the drug slowly by which it shows a prolonged systematic effect.
i) Sub-Lingual- A tablet containing the drug is put under the tongue and is allowed to dissolve in the mouth.
ii) Trans-Nasal- It is useful for drugs in the form of snuffs or nasal sprays.
iii) Trans-Rectal- Drugs can be absorbed through the rectum for producing the systemic effect.
The drug designing and discovery process include the following major steps:
- Drug Target Identification
- Target Validation
- Lead Compound Identification
- Lead Optimization
- Preclinical And Clinical development
- Administration of Drugs
- Absorption Of Drugs
- Drug Assays
- Preservation Of Pharma Product
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