This is the technique in which RNA express genes by dividing into small fragments. Knock-out the genes expressions into the mRNA level. RNAi mechanism starts when an enzymes, which is called DICER, which encounters dsRNA and then cut it into the small fragments called small interfering or siRNA. This is a protein of family RNAs nuclease. Complex proteins group remains gathering into the cell and use their codes, destroy any RNAs with their matching sequences e.g target mRNA, And the cleavages of target which is in center of the region is complimentary to siRNAs.
In this process any cellular mechanism which degrades cytoplasmic RNAs but not nucleic RNAs, this is the way for cells to protects itself. This is the most powerful way to inhibit any gene expressions and get informations about the all functions of gene. This is works in any organisms and cells. We used preserved Endogenous machinery. At low concentration it is potent and highly specific. This interference is a type of regulations which involves small RNA molecules, and it also induced double stranded RNA.
Interference's Needs : a) Defense mechanism, in which protects against viruses, to defense against tarnsposons and other insertional elements. b) Its play important role in regulating, development and maintenance of genomes. 30% human genomes are regulating.
MicroRNAs : This RNA is naturally found and represents a great class of genes which regulates gene expressions during development. It is a single stranded RNA molecules which having 21-23 nucleotides in length, which is responsible for down regulation of genes. Its is a non-proteins RNAs. Its found in single stranded DNA or in RNA in the form of intra molecular base pairing called Stem-Loop (Hairpin-loop).
Application of RNAi : RNAi is used by scientist in several system e.g Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, trypanosomes, and few vertebrates. But now in these days this technology is used in gene slicing in-vitro, development of RNAis technology is helpful for post-implantation embryos.
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