Citing Reference Within The Text Of An Assignment

9. Citing reference within the text of an assignment Note that:-

  • 1. This is also called in-text referencing.
  • 2. Whenever author ideas are used, it should be acknowledge immediately.
  • 3. Give the surname of the author with date of publication.
  • 4. Use the author-date method of citation for quotations and paraphrasing.
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Quotes:- When the words of another author are used exactly, they must be referred with proper page numbers.

Paraphrasing : - It is when you use the concept, idea or word of an another author. Note that only changing few words does not constitute the paraphrasing.

a) Referring general theme of a book or article : -

  • A recent study (Carlson 1990)..

b) How to include page numbers : - In some cases like paraphrasing /referring to information/ an idea that can be located on a particular page, quoting/ referring to images, figures or data, or when a work is particularly long and page numbers might be useful for the reader.

  • Kozeny (1988, p. 223) found soil layers below the well tip contributed little.

c) Direct quotations:- Brief quotation can be included ( like 30-40 words) in text. A single quotation mark is used.

  • 'Engineers are vital to the survival of the planet' (Stewart 1982, p. 6).

(Note : - Long quotations are given in separate paragraphs which are usually indented from the text margin and set in smaller type. Here no quotation marks are used.

d) Images, figures and tables : - Figure captions should be directly under the image and then followed by an in-text citation.

  • Figure 1: Consumer confidence, concerns, spending and attitudes to recession: a global Nielsen consumer report (AC Nielsen 2008, p. 1).

e) Referring to Specific vol. of a book : -

  • (Jessor 1989, vol. 2, p. 23; vol. 3, pp. 20-41)

f) Sections, equations or other elements from a source : -

  • (Jessor 1989, sec. 2)
  • (Jessor 1989, eq. 3)

g) Personal communication : - These includes such as letters, memos, emails, facsimiles, interviews, informal conversations, telephone calls and lecture presentations. Initials are included. Full details of the date (day, month and year) should be provided in the text.

( Note that : - Personal communications are not included in the reference list.)

  • MK Larsen (1983, pers. comm., 1 May) said...
  • On 20 July 2006, Ms A Brown confirmed ...

h) Encyclopedias and dictionaries (if no author is evident) : - There is no need of entry in reference list.

  • The concise Oxford dictionary of current English (1990, p. 334) defines it as ...
  • (The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language 1995, p. 334)

i) Editors : -

  • ed. Kaufmann 1974)
  • ... edited by Kaufmann (1974)

k) Unknown or uncertain dates: -

  • No publication date - Donovan (n.d.) revealed ...
  • Unpublished work - (Crowley, unpub.)
  • Currently in the process of being published - Nisbet (in press)
  • Approximate publication date - Harris (c. 1751, p. 117) said ...

l) Anonymous : -

  • On travelling to London (1683) reveals this to be false.
  • ... as reported in ATSIC News (2002)

m) No personal author, sponsored by corporate body : - If any abbreviation are used, it should be cited in textual references. Then afterwards, it is should in all in-text citation and reference should provide a cross reference.

  • CSIRO 1982)
  • A publication of the Institution of Engineers, Australia (1988) is ...
  • CSIRO - see Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.

n) Newspapers : - i) If the authors is known, follow the rules listed above.

ii)For no authors, all details are provide in in-text citation.

  • (Weekend Australian 24-25 Jan. 1987, p. 19)
  • (Financial Review 18 January 2000, editorial)

( Note : Newspaper articles on web an in electronic database do not require entry in reference list.)

o) Citations from secondary sources : -

  • Brown (cited in Smith 1995, p. 99) reported ...
  • (Brown, cited in Smith 1995, p. 99)

(Note: All the details of the author who has done the citing are provided in the reference list )

  • Smith, J 1995, ...
  • Details of the work of the author being cited - in this example, Brown - can be included if useful or of interest.

p) The bible: : -

  • Psalm 23:6-8.

q) Legislation : - i) The titles of pieces of legislation should be cited exactly. Neither spelling or capitalisation should be altered to suit the referencing style. Articles (a, an or the) should not be omitted.

ii) Most Acts and Ordinances have a short, formal title that can be used for citation purposes. First references should always cite this short, formal title in italics (exactly and in full) and subsequent references can be shown in roman script (not italics) with the date omitted.

  • ... the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974 ...

iii) There are two ways of clarifying jurisdiction

a)Make it obvious in text.

  • Victoria's Equal Opportunity Act 1995 prohibits ...

b) Place information in parentheses and in roman script after the date.

  • ... the Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth) ...
  • ... the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld) ...

iv) Acts of the parliaments of other nations should be presented in roman script.

  • ... The Sale of Foods Act 2000 (UK) ...

v) Bills are presented in roman type because they are, in effect, 'unpublished' at that stage.

  • ... the Regulation of Genetic Material Bill 2000 ...

r) Legal authorities : -

i)The following details are necessary for the full in-text citation of legal authorities:

  • the name of the case (italicised and containing the first-mentioned party on each side). It is sufficient to provide the family name of a person. Corporation names are given in full (but abbreviations can be used)
  • reference details
  • the year (in parentheses) or volume number, or both
  • abbreviated name of the report series
  • the page on which the report of the case begins (for a specific page reference, "at" is used instead of "p."
  • McDonald's Corporation v. Joburgers Drive-Inn Restaurant (Pty) Ltd (1996) 36 IPR 11 at 20.
  • Carey v. Price (2005) 132 ALR 255

ii) In the citation of criminal cases in which the Crown is the prosecutor, "R" is used.

  • R v. Australian Broadcasting Tribunal (1980) 144 CLR 13

iii) However, if the Crown is the respondent in a criminal appeal, the order is reversed and The Queen given in full.

  • Mabo v. The State of Queensland (1992) 175 CLR 1 (the Aboriginal Land Rights Case)

iv) A decision at law can appear in more than one report series.

  • The Commonwealth v. The State of Tasmania (1983) 158 CLR 1; (1983) 57 ALJR 450; (1983) 46 ALR 625 (the Tasmanian Dam Case

s) Web documents, with known authors : - i)To cite a document from a Web site within the text of an assignment, editor or compiler and the date on which the document was created or last revised.

  • International Narcotics Control Board (1999)

ii) The full address of a document within a Web site can be provided in the text. It is sufficient, however, to provide only the address of the Web site.

  • Details are available from the Attorney-Generals Department <>.

r) Web document with no author : - To cite a document from a Web site within the text of an assignment, where the author is unknown, give the title of the document followed by the date of creation or most recent revision.

  • Educating America for the 21st century: developing a strategic plan for educational leadership by Columbia University 1993-2000(initial workshop draft) (1994).

s) Online images : - In text, cite author, year and page number (if available) - for example, AC Nielsen (2008) or (Adams 2006, p. 45). If there is no named author, use the image title or description (in italics) followed by the date. Figure captions should be directly under the image and then followed by an in-text citation.

  • Consumer confidence, concerns, spending and attitudes to recession: a global Nielsen consumer report (AC Nielsen 2008)
  • The lunar interior (1999)

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