The radar cross section (RCS) of a target is a measure of a targets reflectivity in a given direction. The main contributors to RCS are:

Specular scattering – localized scattering dependent on the surface material/texture

Diffraction scattering – incident signal scattering at target edges and discontinuities

Multiple bounce – reflections among target elements at offset angles

The objective in modelling RCS is to develop simulation tools capable of predicting the behaviour of radar receivers in a realistic environment.

__Orientation:__ North East 1.5 Degree Longitude 27.2 Degree latitude.

__Range Equation:__

The power Pr returning to the receiving antenna is given by the radar equation:

where

Pt = transmitter power

Gt = gain of the transmitting antenna

Ar = effective aperture (area) of the receiving antenna

s = radar cross section, or scattering coefficient, of the target

F = pattern propagation factor

Rt = distance from the transmitter to the target

Rr = distance from the target to the receiver.

In the common case where the transmitter and the receiver are at the same location, Rt = Rr and the term Rt² Rr² can be replaced by R4, where R is the range. This yields:

This shows that the received power declines as the fourth power of the range, which means that the reflected power from distant targets is very, very small.

The equation above with F = 1 is a simplification for vacuum without interference. The propagation factor accounts for the effects of multipath and shadowing and depends on the details of the environment. In a real-world situation, pathloss effects should also be considered.

Transmitted Waveform Output:

a) Pulse modulated.

b) Time dependent

c) Narrow bandwidth

d) Follows Niquest theorem

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