a) The link between any 2 nodes has a capacity of 10 Gbps.

b) It is a fiber optic cable.

c) Having negligible attenuation.

d) Having distance coverage of 100 km without waveform regenerators equipment use.

e) Single mode fiber of OC 48 x2 x2 links are used between any 2 nodes. It ensures bidirectional traffic between any 2 nodes. Secondly if 1 link goes down then second link is available. This having high availability at link level.

f) **online tutoring matlab**

Standard single-mode fiber is essentially a thin core (5-8 microns) of Germanium-doped glass surrounded by a thicker layer of pure glass and is the overwhelming workhorse of the optical communications infrastructure. Nearly any application can be addressed with standard single-mode fiber, but it is optimized to support transmission at 1310 nm. Performance issues with standard single-mode fiber can become more significant as higher data rates (such as 10 Gbps) and longer distances (>40 km) are encountered. Low water-peak standard single-mode fiber (IEC type B1.3) has the same dispersion characteristics as standard single-mode fiber (IEC type B1.1), but has reduced attenuation in the region of the water peak (nominally 1383 nm). As no specification is given for water-peak attenuation in standard single-mode fiber (IEC type B1.1), attenuation in the region of 1383 nm can be significantly higher than that at 1310 nm. By reducing the water impurities introduced in this region during the time of manufacture, low water-peak standard single-mode (IEC type B1.3) fiber provides identical support to standard single mode fiber, plus can support additional wavelengths between 1360 and 1460 nm.

Name |
ITU-T |
IEC Reference |
Optimized Dispersion Range (nm) |
Referred to in 802.3ae Specification? |

Standard Single-Mode Fiber |
G.652 | IEC 60793-2 (B1,1/B1.3) |
1300-1324 | Yes |

**Link Characteristics:**

- Typical loss of fibre =
*0.25 dB per km*at 1550 nm l. - Dispersion (NZDSF) = 4 ps/km/nm.
- Power output of 10 Gbps laser diode+modulators is 1 mW
- Typical receiver sensitivity for 10
^{-10}error rate is 10^{-2}mW. - These limit maximum span of fibre to ~50 km before amplification required.
- Amplifiers can be Erbium doped fibre amplifiers (EDFAs) or Raman effect amplifiers (just becoming available).
- Multiple wavelengths on a link require optical multiplexers and de-multiplexers with extra loss.

function elbonian_network_map(filename, printfile, figure_n)

% read in the input files

[city_index, city_name, city_x, city_y] = read_cities();

[border_x, border_y] = textread('elbonian_border.dat', '%f %f', 'delimiter', '|');

N = length(city_index);

% draw map of Elbonia

if (nargin < 3)

figure

else

figure(figure_n);

end

hold off

fill(border_x, border_y, [0.9, 0.9, 0.9])

hold on

plot(city_x, city_y, 'o', 'linewidth', 4, 'markersize', 4);

% set(gca,'xlim', [0 aspect_ratio*scale]);

% set(gca,'ylim', [0 scale]);

daspect([1 1 1]);

d = 3;

for i=1:N

h(i) = text(city_x(i)+d, city_y(i), char(city_name(i)), ...

'verticalalignment', 'middle');

end

set(gca,'fontsize', 12);

xlabel('km');

ylabel('km');

text(220, 270, 'Elbonia', 'fontsize', 32);

if (nargin > 0 & ~isempty(filename))

[pop1, pop2, links_type, links_n, links_capacity, ...

group_id, group_members, date, ...

network_cost, router_cost, total_fibre_cost, total_line_card_cost] = read_links(filename)

% check the costs are as expected

[X,Y] = meshgrid(city_x, city_y);

distance = sqrt((X-X').^2 + (Y-Y').^2);

for i=1:length(pop1)

links_distances(i,1) = distance(pop1(i), pop2(i));

end

[total_cost, fibre_cost, line_card_cost] = compute_cost(links_type, links_n, ...

links_distances);

if (abs(sum(total_cost) - (network_cost-router_cost)) > 2)

error(sprintf('network costs doesn''t equate: %f and %f\n', ...

network_cost-router_cost, sum(total_cost)));

end

if (abs(sum(fibre_cost) - total_fibre_cost) > 2)

error(sprintf(' costs doesn''t equate: %f and %f\n', ...

total_fibre_cost, sum(fibre_cost)));

end

if (abs(sum(line_card_cost) - total_line_card_cost) > 2)

error(sprintf(' costs doesn''t equate: %f and %f\n', ...

total_line_card_cost, sum(line_card_cost)));

end

//**matlab expert for assignments**

% plot the links

for i=1:length(pop1)

if (links_type(i) == 1)

plot([city_x(pop1(i)) city_x(pop2(i))], ...

[city_y(pop1(i)) city_y(pop2(i))], 'r-', 'linewidth', links_n(i));

else

plot([city_x(pop1(i)) city_x(pop2(i))], ...

[city_y(pop1(i)) city_y(pop2(i))], 'r-', 'linewidth', 4*links_n(i));

end

end

% title(sprintf('Group %s, members %s', strrep(group_id,'_',' '), group_members))

end

if (nargin >= 2 & ~isempty(printfile))

print('-depsc', printfile);

end

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