1) We have employed 10 Gigabit Ethernet in our network.
2) Every router is capable to handle 10 Gbps input and output data.
3) Fiber has best quality attenuation, polarization mode dispersion and chromatic dispersion characteristics.
Matlab assignment problem examples, our matlab assignment tutors provide the best solution, for example, for short fiber spans, optical transmission at 1310 nm remains an appealing option due to the price and availability of lasers at this wavelength. Several factors drive consideration of transmission at higher wavelengths, however. At higher data rates, requirements on receiver sensitivity typically grow more stringent, requiring higher received optical powers to maintain low error rates. Due to relatively high fiber attenuation at 1310 nm, maximum allowable transmission distances are reduced at 1310 nm compared to 1550 nm. At extended distances, which exceed the allowable sensitivities of optical receivers, signals in the 1550 nm region can be optically amplified (usually with an EDFA) whereas optical amplification is not commonly available at 1310 nm. As a result, 1310 nm transmission requires electrical regeneration, which is fundamentally more expensive than optical amplification.
|WaveLenght (nm)||Maximum fiber attenuation per IEC 60793-2 (dB/km)||Typical cabled attenuation (dB/km)|
Table : Attenuation of standard single-mode fiber at 1310 nm and 1550 nm
Optical pulses carrying digital information comprise a finite spectrum of wavelengths (not just one infinitely narrow wavelength).Since different wavelengths travel at different velocities in an optical fiber, the individual components of a single pulse will spread as the pulse propagates. Eventually, adjacent optical pulses will overlap with one another and the signal will become excessively degraded. At 1310 nm, attenuation will degrade a signal transmitted over standard single-mode fiber before chromatic dispersion becomes a problem. As a result chromatic dispersion is not an issue for 10 Gbps data rate transmission at 1310 nm over standard single-mode fiber. However, at 1550 nm, increased chromatic dispersion in standard single-mode fiber becomes the significant limiting factor, typically limiting 10 Gigabit Ethernet transmission to 40 km, although this specification is also dependent on the choice of transmitter. Beyond the dispersion limited distance of standard single-mode fiber, a signal requires either electrical regeneration or some means of optical dispersion compensation. DSF and NZDSF have reduced chromatic dispersion in the 1550 nm region, thus extending the allowable distance before regeneration or optical dispersion compensation would otherwise be required.
A routinely cited potential impact on 10 Gbps applications is the influence of Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) introduced by some installed fiber infrastructures. PMD effectively separates an optical signal into two identical signals, which propagate down a fiber at different speeds. If the two components are significantly separated when a signal is finally received, the encoded information can be considerably deteriorated. Most optical fibers that comply to the current G.652 (standard single-mode fiber) and G.655 (non-zero dispersion shifted fiber) standards are suitable for 10 Gbps transmission in WAN-size applications. However, there are potential issues with older infrastructures, particularly those that contain fiber installed prior to the 90’s. Some optical fiber manufactured prior to this time had acceptable PMD characteristics, although the lack of PMD performance requirements in an industry standard allowed for significant variation between vendors and their various manufacturing techniques. In fact, the necessity for standardization was precipitated in large part by the discovery of very poor PMD performance with fiber manufactured by one major supplier. Although standardization of PMD largely solved the problem, a significant amount of fiber installed prior to the early ‘90s remains unlit and poses potential problems with 10 Gbps deployment. The situation is significant enough to warrant several major carriers to require PMD testing on any network link being considered for 10 Gbps transport. PMD remains a significant focus in optical fiber development as ultra-high data rates (40 Gbps and above) are considered.
Assignment Writing Help
Engineering Assignment Services
Do My Assignment Help
Write My Essay Services