Biology Sample Assignment

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Using a flow diagram with boxes and arrows, construct a representative pathway analysis for human intake to elimination of Asparagusic acid. You do not need to show a specific chemical reaction path, but identify the critical systems, organs and metabolic processes involved. Please be complete in your answer.

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Assignment 1 Part 2

Vitamin D:
Chemical formula: C22H440
LD50: 440,000 vitamin D pills at 400 IUs in humans
Recommended daily allowance: 200 IU/day for infants to 50, 400/day for 51-70, 600/day for above 70
Recommended maximum intake: same as RDA
NOEL: 300,000 IU
Effects on body:

This play role in role in Immunomodulation, cancer prevention and recovery, cardiovascular disease prevention, all-cause mortality, Hypercalcemia, causing high blood pressure, Anorexia, nausea and vomiting
Target organs:
Intestine, Kidney, Heart
Path of detoxification:
Exposure to sunlight for extended periods of time does not normally cause vitamin D toxicity. This is because within about 20 minutes of ultraviolet exposure in light skinned individuals (3–6 times longer for pigmented skin) the concentration of vitamin D precursors produced in the skin reach an equilibrium and any further vitamin D that is produced is degraded. Maximum endogenous production with full body exposure to sunlight is 250 µg (10,000 IU) per day.
Reference: Marvin J. Seven, Metal binding in medicines:proceeding of a symposium, Lippincott, 1960

Monsanto:
Chemical formula: C3H8NO5P
LD50: 5600 mg/Kg for rat
Recommended maximum intake: 85 ml of concentrated formulation
NOEL: 31 mg/kg/day for rat
Effects on body:
There is no known toxic effect of round up glyphosate on human body because of exposure but mortality can result on ingestion. Apart from that skin burn, eye infection, respiratory trouble, pain and many more effects.

Target organs:
Eye, skin, mouth, throat, bradycardia and ventricles.
Reference: Gerald M. Cohen, Target Organ Toxicity, Volume 1, CRC Press

Natural Plant insecticide (Pyrethrum):

Chemical formula: C19H26O3
Lethal oral dose: 750 mg/kg for children and 1000 mg/kg for adult
LD50: 200 mg/kg to 2600 mg/ka in rats
Recommended maximum intake: 0.01 mg/kg to 0.05 mg/kg
Effect on body:
Par aesthesia, skin irritation, mucosa, headache, dizziness and nausea
Target organs:
Skin, Head and nostril
Path of detoxification:
These substances get metabolised rapidly by oxidation and then metabolised product go through urine excretion.
Refernce:Norbert W. Tietz, Fundamentals on clinical chemistry, University of Michigan, 1987.Print.

Food Preservative (EDTA):
Chemical formula: C10H16N2O8
LD50: 2 to 2.2 g/kg in rat
Recommended maximum intake: 2.5mg/kg/day
Effect on body:
If given rapidly, it can result in kidney failure. It may interact with other medications a person is taking.
Target organs:
Kidney

Level Of Concern:
Based on toxicity data, it can be said that above four are not severely toxic as far as exposure is concerned though their ingestion can cause damages sometime mortality also.
Reference: Eric F. Glassy, Colar atlas of hematology:an illustrated guide based proficiency testing, College of American pathologists, 1998

References:

  • Norbert W. Tietz, Fundamentals on clinical chemistry, University of Michigan, 1987.Print.
  • Gerald M. Cohen, Target Organ Toxicity, Volume 1, CRC Press
  • Marvin J. Seven, Metal binding in medicines:proceeding of a symposium, Lippincott, 1960
  • Eric F. Glassy, Colar atlas of hematology:an illustrated guide based proficiency testing, College of American pathologists, 1998

Assignment 1 Part 1

Authorities in Australia that deals with control of toxic substances:
  • Australian geological survey organization:
Geoscience Australia is a prescribed agency within the Resources, Energy and Tourism portfolio. Geoscience Australia is a world leader in providing first class geo scientific information and knowledge which enables government and community to make informed decisions about:
  • the exploitation of resources
  • the management of the environment
  • the safety of critical infrastructure and
  • the resultant wellbeing of all Australians.

Reference:

Australian Geological Survey Organization (AGSO), viewed 15 august 2009, "http://www.austehc.unimelb.edu.au/asaw/biogs/A000877b.htm"

  • Centre for research and environmental studies:

The Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies (CRES) includes economists, hydrologists, historians, ecologists, anthropologists and soil scientists. Research is undertaken into many natural resource and environmental issues. It was combined with the School of Resources, Environment and Society (SRES) to form The Fenner School of Environment and Society in 2007.

Reference:

Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies 2008, Australian National University Canberra, viewed 14august2009
  • National Research centre for environmental toxicology:

EnTox is a co-founder of the Australian Centre for Human Health Risk Assessment and provides short course on environmental health risk assessment. Information and consultancy services are available for the Australian Scientific and Professional community.

Reference:

National Research centre for environmental toxicology, viewed 14 August 2009, www.entox.uq.gov.au
  • Queensland health, central area population health services:

Queensland Health is the department of the Queensland's government responsible for operating and administering the public health system of the Australian State of Queensland. It is responsible to the State's minister of health and its Director general is Michael Reid.

Reference:

The department of the Government of Queensland 2005, Queensland, viewed 15August 2009 services "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queensland_Health"
  • Golder associates:

At Golder Associates we strive to be the most respected global group specialising in ground engineering and environmental services. With Golder, clients gain the advantage of working with highly skilled engineers and scientists who are committed to helping them succeed.

Reference:

Golder Associates Pty Ltd1960,viewed 14august 2009 "http://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/education/professional-development- program/participating-organisations/golder-associates-pty-ltd.cfm"
  • Gold coast city council:

It is leading the way towards a bold future that can sustain growth and economic development while retaining a lifestyle that is uniquely 'Gold Coast'.

Reference:

Gold coast city council, viewed 15 August 2009, www.goldcoast.qld.gov.au>
  • Queensland Institute of medical research and university of Queensland tropical health
  • Program:
  • Established in 1945 by the Queensland Government, the Queensland Institute of Medical Research (QIMR) is one of the largest medical research institutes in the southern hemisphere and is recognised worldwide for the quality of its research. Originally established to further the study of tropical diseases in North Queensland, QIMR has, over its 63 year history, broadened its scope to include the immunological, biological and molecular basis of a wide range of infectious diseases, cancers and other disorders. QIMR has also built a strong research stream in epidemiology, the study of the environmental, lifestyle and genetic factors that contribute to disease incidence among populations.

Reference:

Queensland institute of medical research, viewed 14 August 2009, <www.qimr.edu.au>
  • Australian environmental protection agency:
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is a Queensland Government department with the role of managing climate change and protecting the environment.

Reference:

Australia Environmental protection agency(EPA), viewed 15 august 2009, www.epa.vic.gov.au

  • Australian environmental protection agency:
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is a Queensland Government department with the role of managing climate change and protecting the environment.
  • Mission of EPA is to provide solutions for Queensland's future through leadership in conserving Queensland's landscapes, enabling sustainable development, improving business and industry's environmental performance; and building community knowledge and participation.
  • The agency has three Outputs that directly contribute to the EPA's vision of an environmentally sustainable Queensland and the Government priority of managing climate change and protecting the environment. Our organisational structure is aligned to our strategies for the future and these align to our Outputs.
  • The Performance and Capability Output reflects the agency's objective to lead organisational sustainability through valuing our people, our capability and our knowledge.
  • Australian geological survey organization:
  • Geoscience Australia is a prescribed agency within the Resources, Energy and Tourism portfolio. Geoscience Australia is a world leader in providing first class geo scientific information and knowledge which enables government and community to make informed decisions about the exploitation of resources , the management of the environment, the safety of critical infrastructure and the resultant wellbeing of all Australians.
  • The outcome of our work is an enhanced potential for the Australian community to obtain economic, social and environmental benefits through the application of first class research and information.

References:

  1. Australian Geological Survey Organization (AGSO), viewed 15 august 2009, "http://www.austehc.unimelb.edu.au/asaw/biogs/A000877b.htm"
  2. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies 2008, Australian National University Canberra, viewed 14august2009, "http://www10.giscafe.com/resource/display_detail?link_id=24550"
  3. The department of the Government of Queensland 2005, Queensland, viewed 15August 2009, "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queensland_Health"
  4. Golder Associates Pty Ltd1960,viewed 14august 2009 "http://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/education/professional-development- program/participating-organisations/golder-associates-pty-ltd.cfm"
  5. Australia Environmental protection agency(EPA), viewed 15 august 2009, "www.epa.vic.gov.au"
  6. Queensland institute of medical research, viewed 14 August 2009, "www.qimr.edu.au"
  7. Gold coast city council, viewed 15 August 2009, "www.goldcoast.qld.gov.au"
  8. National Research centre for environmental toxicology, viewed 14 August 2009, "www.entox.uq.gov.au"

Food Toxicology Assignment 1 Part 3

Male and female volunteers ate 500 g of steamed asparagus in the evening and collected urine the following morning. Those samples of urine having odorous (volatile) components were analyzed by GC-MS (gas chromatography - mass spectrometry) for their chemical make-up. Six discrete compounds were identified:

biology sample assignment

biology sample assignment

Using a flow diagram with boxes and arrows, construct a representative pathway analysis for human intake to elimination of asparagusic acid. You do not need to show a specific chemical reaction path, but identify the critical systems, organs and metabolic processes involved.

Part 3 :

Asparagusic acid is first reduced to dithiol inside the stomach. This dithiol get metylated and then oxidized to be converted into methanethiol. This methanethiol can undergo subsequent dimerisation to form dimethyldisulphide which can further get methylated. The product so formed is bis(methylthiol)methane. Also, methanethiol can itslf undergo methylation to give dimethyl sulphide. This dimethyl sulphide undergoes oxidation to give dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylsulfone.

References:

  1. Foss, Olav; Tjomsland, Olav (1958)."Crystal and molecular structure of 1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid". Acta Chemica Scandinavica 12: 1810-18
  2. L.A. Damani, Sulphur containing drugs and related organic compounds,the University of Michigan,1989
  3. Christophersen and Uffe Anthoni (1986). Organic sulphur compounds from marine organisms.

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