Antibiotic resistant is the ability of microorganisms to withstand the effect of any antibiotic.
Many viruses and bacteria’s were there that caused certain diseases in human, so antibiotics were used to control them but with passing time bacteria developed resistant against most antibiotics. The methods are: natural selection and random mutation. In other case some bacteria are artificially resistant to various antibiotics. Some bacteria develop mutation that becomes useful for them to remain protected against different antibiotic. Since the mutation confers advantage to them, therefore they reproduce by different method or transfer their genetic information to other such microorganism. This way, the resistant against antibiotic spread in the population and hence increase the number of antibiotic resistant bacteria. This is both the action of natural selection and random mating. Beside this, when any antibiotic is applied for the longer period of time in any bacteria, the every upcoming generation of these bacteria will little by little develop resistant to that antibiotic and finally variant form with resistant type can be seen.
This is a major problem of health when Bactria becomes resistant to antibiotic because then medicines or drugs fail to treat the patient and strike him to death. Antibiotic resistant does not mean the bacteria resistant to only one antibiotic rather they are resistant to more than one antibiotic and some of the example are:
1. MDR TB: this is also called multi-drug tuberculosis. In this case, TB bacteria can no more be killed by the most important antibiotic called isoniazid and rifampin that have made cure for the tuberculosis more difficult.
2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae: it is sexually transmitted disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Recently, it have been found that cephalosporin’s, the drug used to treat gonorrhea is no more effective to this disease. Therefore, bacteria of this disease have developed resistant against the antibiotic thus reducing its effect and increasing complexity of treatment.
3. VRE: also called vancomycin–resistant enterococci. The bacteria named enterococci are present in the digestive and genital tract of human and generally cause infection when the person is very susceptible to the diseases. Vanomycin is the drug that is used to treat these bacteria but reportedly, slowly this drug is failing to act on these bacteria thus making it resistant to the applied antibiotic.
These are only some examples of antibiotic resistant bacteria, there are many such examples that have not only increased complication for the disease but also increased the risk of life.
Herbicides are used in the plants so that any unwanted crops or weeds can be removed from the area that obstruct in proper growth of the plants. They are also known as weed killer. Generally specific herbicides are designed to destroy unwanted weeds that doesn’t harm. Therefore, most importantly herbicides are used for agricultural purpose along with industrial and other vegetation control sites. Though herbicides are used for advantage of the crops but on the other hand it have lots of disadvantages like effect on health, effect on water sites, environmental pollution and many more. Therefore, advancement in science and biotechnology has helped in development of plant that are resistant to herbicide. This have many advantages like:
Such plants are also called transgenic plants that are resistant against herbicide. Examples of herbicide resistant plant include bromoxynil that is an herbicide which inhibit photosynthesis. Bacterial gene called nitrilase is incorporated in the plant to make it herbicide resistant. This is done by inactivation of bromoxynil before the action of the herbicide. These way herbicide resistant plants are developed.
Likewise, many more plants are technically modified so that they can resist the effect or damage caused by herbicide on plant and the herbicide applied will only damage the unwanted weeds and crops. This will keep the environment clean since no excess amount is sprayed and on the other hand the plant product will be healthier for consumption.