- Male reproductive system
Anatomy of male reproductive system Assignment Help
Reproductive system in human
Reproduction is the process by which offspring are produced for the continuity of generation. In human, reproduction takes place by the involvement of two individuals, a male and a female. Male gamete i.e. sperm cell when untie with the female gamete i.e. egg, offspring are produced, this process is known as fertilization where zygote is formed from the union of male and female gamete. Therefore, internal fertilization takes place in human. All the organs involved in the process of reproduction makes up the reproductive system.
Anatomy of male reproductive system:
It involves the organs involved in reproduction and the complete process of fertilization, from the preparation of sperm to the complete process involved in fertilization. The organs of male reproductive system are:
- Scrotum: it is the supporting structure for the testes that hangs from the root of penis. Externally, it looks like a single pouch of skin separated by a median ridge called raphe, whereas internally it is divided by scrotal septum that consists of single testes in each sac.
- Penis: it is the passageway for passing of urine and ejaculation of sperm. The head of penis has a covering called foreskin. The outer layer of foreskin is the continuation of the skin of the shaft whereas the inner foreskin is actually a mucocutaneous tissue found nowhere in the body. There is an interface between outer and inner foreskin called frenar band that forms ridges when penis is erected. Corpus cavernosm is the two column of tissue running alongside penis that gets filled up with blood for erection. Corpus spongiosum that is sponge like tissue running along the side of the penis that also fills with blood during erection. Therefore, it is the changes in blood flow that causes erection of penis hence, ejaculation of sperm.
- Testis: these are the paired oval glands that develop near the kidneys, on the posterior side of abdomen. Tunica vaginalis partially covers the testes and fluid that gets collected in the tunica vaginalis is called hydromel. Tunica albuginea lies internal to the vaginalis. Testes are divided into different lobules and these lobules along with 2 to 3 tubules make seminiferous tubules, the place where sperms are produced. Therefore, the process is known as spermatogenesis.
Seminiferous tubules have 2 types of cells: sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells. On one hand spermatogenic cells helps in formation of sperm whereas sertoli cell includes the functions that support the process of spermatogenesis.
Some of the functions of sertoli cells are:
- It nourishes sperms, spermatids and spermatocytes.
- Phagocytosis of excess cytoplasm in spermatid.
- Control of moments of spermatogenic cells.
- Control in release of sperm into the lumen of seminiferous tubules. Secretion of hormone inhibin.
- Production of fluid for sperm transport.
- Regulates the effects of testosterone and FSH
These are some of the function performed by sertoli cells in support of developing spermatogenic cells.
One more type of cell is present in cluster between the adjacent seminiferous tubules called Leydig cells that secrete testosterone.
Beside, these organs some of the ducts and organ that are the part main part of male reproductive system are:
- Epididymis: it is a comma shaped organ that lies in the posterior side of the testis. It consists of tightly coile ductus epididymis. Head is the portion where efferent duct from the testis join the ductus epididymis. On the other hand body is narrow portion whereas tail is the smaller portion. Some of the main function of epididymis is: it is a site of maturation of sperm. Thus, it stores sperm for several months. The other main function of epididymis is that it helps sperm to reach sperm into vas deferens.
- Ductus deferens/ vas deferens: it starts from the point when diameter of tail of the ductus epididymis starts increasing thus entering the pelvic cavity. The terminal portion of ductus deference that is dilated is called ampulla. Ductus deferens passes the sperm from epididymis towards the urethra. Beside this, it also stores the sperm for several months, if not used sperm get reabsorbed.
- Spermatic cord: it is the bundle of fibers forming cord like structure ascends out of the scrotum. It facilitates the passage for sperm.
- Ejaculatory ducts: this duct is formed by the union of duct from seminal vesicle and ampulla of vas deferens.
- Urethra: it is passage for both urine and semen, it is subdivided into three parts prostatic urethra, membranous urethra and spongy urethra.
Beside the main organs of male reproductive system, some of the other accessory organs are:
Seminal vesicle: it lies anterior to rectum and posterior to base of urinary bladder. The environment within this organ is alkaline so that the acidic environment of male urethra and female reproductive tract gets neutralize so as to protect the sperm.
Prostrate: it is doughnut- shaped organ that surrounds the prosthetic urethra. It secretes milky fluid that contains several important substances.
1. Citric acid: used by sperm for ATP production.
2. Proteolytic enzymes: breaks clotting proteins from seminal vesicles.
3. Seminal plasmia: antibiotic that destroys bacteria.
Bulbouretheral gland: also called Cowper’s gland is located inferior to prostrate. They secrete alkaline fluid to protect sperm and also the mucous to lubricate the end of penis and also the urethra.